The material related to Winans' activities as Sub-Indian Agent includes an 1870 census of Indian tribes in Northeastern Washington, including the Okanagans, Calispels (or Pend’ Oreilles), San Poils and Nespelems, Senijexsees or Lakes, Wenatchees and Isle d'Pierres, Mishouies, Spokanes, and the Swielpees (or Colvilles). This material includes detailed verbatim reports on speeches given by chiefs in tribal councils, descriptions of the social and economic situation of the region’s tribes, and notes on how the Indians viewed white people and white society.