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Washington State University Libraries
Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections
Pullman, WA 99164-5610 USA
(509) 335-6691

Archives 311
Alternatives for Washington Project
Films, 1974-1975


The Alternatives for Washington films were transferred to WSU Libraries by the Oregon Historical Society in 2001 after OHS acquired the records of a Portland film lab Teknifilm, Inc. The films were retained as UA 2001-09. The collection was processed in 2011 by Susan Vetter. In February 2012 two completed 16mm films were moved from the WSU Libraries' unprocessed Historical Films Collection, and added to the end of this collection.


Number of containers: 2 boxes
Linear feet of shelf space: 2


The Alternatives for Washington (AFW) program began in 1974 and concluded with a final report in early 1977. AFW involved Washington citizens in community-based social planning; it was funded with grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission in the US Department of Commerce, and administered by the state's Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management.

Governor Daniel J. Evans launched the AFW program in January 1974 with the mission first to ask Washington citizens what they wanted the state to be like in 1985 and then to involve them in actualizing that vision by identifying the costs and necessary trade-offs. Workshops, seminars, and community meetings across the state inaugurated the program and reached 60,000 citizens in the first year. In 1975 the 150-person statewide AFW task force analyzed and evaluated responses and compiled a report that identified eight public policy areas for Phase Two. Phase Two returned with costs attached to proposals and queried citizens to identify acceptable trade-offs to preserve "our magnificent Northwest life-style" (Alternatives for Washington, Vol. I, Rpt. 1, May 1975). Claiming to have involved 100,000 people over its three years, AFW concluded in January 1977 with the issuance of a final report An Agenda for the Future: A Citizens Report on Alternatives for Washington.

Several departments at Washington State University assisted with conducting meetings, collecting and analyzing responses to opinion polls, and producing media presentations. These included Cooperative Extension, whose relevant records are contained in Archives 225, along with the Department of Rural Sociology (especially faculty members John M. Wardwell and Don A. Dillman), the Social Research Center, and Radio-Television Services. Besides this collection, WSU-held media associated with the project include photographs and a 16-mm film in Archives 225 (see below) and two 3/4-inch videotapes entitled "Alternatives for Washington: A Future Tense" in WSU Libraries Media Materials Services that are an "enhanced" slide show on the background and purpose of AFW with photographs from public meetings. Note that Archives 225 contains slides that may be the originals used in this slide show.

The films in this collection are assumed to be footage shot by WSU Radio-Television Services that was then used to create three AFW-associated films identified in WorldCat as WSU-produced and held only by the Washington State Library: Alternatives for Washington [1974?], Issaquah, a Beginning: Alternatives for Washington [1974?], and The First Year: Alternatives for Washington [1975?].

Alternatives for Washington was a 12-minute introduction to the AFW project; Issaquah, a Beginning: Alternatives for Washington documented 1974's twelve-day citizen panels and public meetings in Issaquah and was released in 27-minute and 20-minute "short" versions; and the 26-minute The First Year: Alternatives for Washington summarized the Phase I results including the areas of concern based on the 1974 citizen surveys and is included in Archives 225.

This collection's films were stored at Teknifilm, Inc. in Portland and sent to WSU Libraries in 2001 after Oregon Historical Society acquired the company's collection. Teknifilm offered complete film processing from 1964 to 1998. WSU Radio-Television Services presumably sent film footage shot for AFW to Teknifilm to be developed and perhaps for post-production work. This collection seems to consist of what remained at Teknifilm: footage used in a WSU-production, but not the final prints.


The collection consists of fifteen reels of 16-mm film and five 1-inch paper data tapes. Films in the collection are preprints that include A, B, and C rolls, magnetic sound tracks, and internegative prints. The A, B, and C rolls and separate magnetic sound tracks are edited together in post-production to create a print. A, B, and C rolls are used to create effects such as fades and dissolves by alternating scenes back and forth from one roll to the next and back. For example, the A roll may have the even-numbered shots with black leader film between them and the B roll the odd-numbered ones. The A and B rolls and the sound track are then run through the contact printer in three passes to create a negative. An internegative comes later in post-production when editing is finished; it is the internegative from which a final release print is made. The internegative reels include an optical sound track that, unlike a magnetic track, is on the film and not on a separate reel. A- or B-wind refers to emulsion orientation. The data tapes carry more identifying information and seem to have been used to sync the rolls in post-production printing. The final two 16mm films are completed films.


Eastman Kodak metal canisters originally housed the films, often with two reels per canister and always in acidic Teknifilm-logo paper bags. Each reel was transferred to an archival media box. To retain as much of the Teknifilm provenance information as possible, photocopies of the Teknifilm bag labels are included with the film and inventory numbers from the canisters in the container list below.

Arrangement was primarily determined for ease of storage and preservation.


This collection is open and available for research use. Materials are subject to copyright.


Alternatives for Washington (Organization)
Regional planning--Washington (State)--Citizen participation
Washington (State)--Economic policy
Washington (State)--Social policy


Archives 225: Cooperative Extension Service Alternatives for Washington Project Records, 1974-1975
Alternatives for Washington: a Future Tense [videorecording], WSU Media Materials Services, 3/4" 10012 pt. 1 and pt. 2
"Alternatives for Washington," 11 volumes (Olympia: Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, 1974-1977), MW 9 PL 13 ST 9 Al79
"An Agenda for the Future: [a citizens report on Alternatives for Washington]" (Olympia: Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, 1977), MW 9 PL 13 ST 9 Al79c


The films and related documents are in English.


The suggested citation for the collection is:

[Item Description]
Alternatives for Washington Project Films 1974-1975 (Archives 311)
Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections
Washington State University Libraries
Pullman, WA

BoxItem Description
1 1-2 Family 1 (#31546 and 31547), orig A&B rolls, [11+ min], Mag. Trk. [sound], Paper 1" data tape, [1974]
3-4 Color Orig. A&B Rolls (#60552 and 60553), A wind, KWSU-TV orig., [12+ min.], 1974 August 8
5 Color orig C roll (mint) (#28971 and 28972) , A wind, [11+ min], Paper 1" data tape notes WSU/Lieban, 1974 August 8
6-7 Issaquah - A New Beginning (#7375), Short Version Wash. St. U., A Wind Color Interneg., Opt. trk. [sound], Editor John Lieben, Producer/Writer Rita E. Pastore, Producer/Director Mike McElreath, [12+ min], Paper 1" data tape, [1974]
2 8-9 Issaquah - A New Beginning (#60498 and 60499), Short Version, Wash. St. U. Color I/N opt. trk. , 767' [21+ min], [1974]
10 Family 2&3 (#46431), orig A&B rolls, [16+ min], Paper 1" data tape, [1974]
11 Family 2&3 (#46431), Mag. Trk. [sound], [1974]
12 Growth Film (#17261 and 17262), Color, orig. A/B reels [~14 min.], Mag. Trk. [sound], Producer Jim Blashfield, [1974]
13 Growth Film (#17261 and 17262), Edited w/P Magnetic Composite A&B Rolls [sound], Paper 1" data tape, [1974]
14 Issaquah - A New Beginning
15 Alternatives For Washington: The First Year