Guide to the Black Oral History Interviews 1972-1974
CT 2

Table of Contents

Summary Information
Biographical/Historical note
Scope and Contents note
Arrangement note
Administrative Information
Controlled Access Headings
Collection Inventory
Series CT 2/1-2: Mr. and Mrs. A.E. Banks
Series CT 2/3: Flowers Sisters (Mabel, Myrtle)
Series CT 2/4: Kathelyn Bogle
Series CT 2/5: Mr. and Mrs.Claude Buckner
Series CT 2/6: Mr. and Mrs. James Chase
Series CT 2/7: Mrs. James Clow
Series CT 2/8: Mrs. Margaret Cogwell
Series CT 2/9-10: Reverend and Mrs. Sam Coleman
Series CT 2/11: Mrs. Thelma DeWittig
Series CT 2/12: Mrs. Armeta Duncan
Series CT 2/13: Dr. Walter Duncan
Series CT 2/14: Verron Dunning
Series CT 2/15-16: Lawrence Freeman
Series CT 2/17: Mr. and Mrs. Reginald Frye
Series CT 2/18: Carver Gayton
Series CT 2/19: Virginia Gayton
Series CT 2/20: Mr. and Mrs. Levi Harris
Series CT 2/21: Ray Henry
Series CT 2/22-23: Franklin James and Mrs. Franklin James
Series CT 2/24: Raymond Johnson
Series CT 2/25: Frank King
Series CT 2/26: Mr. and Mrs. Randolph King
Series CT 2/27-28: Mr. and Mrs. William King
Series CT 2/29: William Knott
Series CT 2/30: James Lee
Series CT 2/31: Rev. and Mrs. Greenwood Luster
Series CT 2/32: Mr. and Mrs. Isadore Maney and Mr. Maney's mother
Series CT 2/33: Ethel Monroe
Series CT 2/34: Sandy moss
Series CT 2/35: Mr. and Mrs. George Nelson
Series CT 2/36: Flexan Pierce
Series CT 2/37-38: Edward Pitter
Series CT 2/39: Mrs. Ollie Rucker
Series CT 2/40: Sam Smith
Series CT 2/41: Mrs. Virgil Stewart
Series CT 2/42: Mrs. Henry Strong
Series CT 2/43-44: Jack Tanner
Series CT 2/45: Mr. and Mrs. Warner Terrell
Series CT 2/46: Paul Thomas
Series CT 2/47: Mrs. Tracy Thompson (Bertie Neoma)
Series CT 2/48: Thomas and Ophelia Walker
Series CT 2/49: Mr. and Mrs. John Woods
Series CT 2/50: Charles Warren
Series CT 2/51: C.A. White

Summary Information

Repository
Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries
Title
Black Oral History Interviews
ID
CT 2
Date [inclusive]
1972-1974
Extent
1.0 box
General Physical Description note
.5 Linear feet of shelf space
Language
English
Abstract
Oral history interviews on audiocassette, conducted by Quintard Taylor, Charles Ramsay, and John Dawkins, 1972-1974. The information obtained was used as source material for KWSU-TV's documentary series South by Northwest and also served as primary source material for Taylor's doctoral dissertation, "A History of Blacks in the Pacific Northwest, 1788-1970," completed at the University of Minnesota in 1977.

Preferred Citation note

[Item Description] Black Oral History Interviews, 1972-1974 (CT 2)

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA.

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Biographical/Historical note

The Washington State University Black Studies Department was provided with $1500 in university funds in the summer of 1972 to begin preliminary research on sources of black history in the Pacific Northwest. Since it seemed that few African Americans in the region left a written record of themselves, important information was passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth. Quintard Taylor, with associates Charles Ramsay and John Dawkins, interviewed black pioneers and their descendants throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana.

The information obtained was used as source material for KWSU-TV's documentary series "South by Northwest" and also served as primary source material for Taylor's doctoral dissertation, "A History of Blacks in the Pacific Northwest, 1788-1970," completed at the University of Minnesota in 1977.

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Scope and Contents note

This collection consists of 44 oral history interviews on 50 audiocassettes. Topics include early black settlers, job opportunities, living patterns, black churches, and black political involvement from the late 1800s through 1974. Most of the interviews follow a standard set of questions.

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Arrangement note

The tapes are arranged alphabetically by interviewee. An exception occurs where two interviewees were recorded on the same cassette (numbers 3 and 4), making 44 interviews on 50 tapes.

(MASC STAFF USE): range 3-4.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries © 2017

http://www.libraries.wsu.edu/masc
Terrell Library
P.O. Box 645610
Pullman, WA, 99164-5610
509-335-6691
mascref@wsu.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

This collection is open and available for research use.

Conditions Governing Use note

Copyright restrictions apply.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

These interviews conducted by Quintard Taylor and his associates from 1972-1974 were transferred to the Washington State University Libraries from the AudioVisual Listening Lab in January and May, 1978. (MS.1978.03).

Processing Information note

Margot H. Knight abstracted these interviews in June, 1979.

Existence and Location of Copies note

These interviews have been digitized, and are available online.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Washington State University. Black Studies Program.

Personal Name(s)

  • Dawkins, John.
  • Ramsay, Charles.
  • Taylor, Quintard.

Subject(s)

  • African Americans
  • African Americans -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
  • Oral Histories
  • Oral history -- United States.

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Collection Inventory

Series CT 2/1-2: Mr. and Mrs. A.E. Banks 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Banks--porter, post office; Mrs. Banks--coat checker

Birthdate of Interviewee: Mrs. Banks--1894, Mr. Banks---1895

Geographical Areas Covered: Helena

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Helena, Montana

Date of Interview: 7/21/73

Length of Interview: l hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/23/79-5/24/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Mr. Banks came to Helena in 1917 from Alabama. Father a mechanic. Family background. Why he moved to Montana. Cousin in the calvary at Ft. Harrison, Montana. He planned to attend Carroll College but didn't. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0-6

Lived in Billings for a while. Also stayed in Missoula for a while but there was no social life. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 6-8

Attended the Southern Christian Institute in Edwards, Mississippi. Talks about playing baseball for them. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8-10

He worked at the post office with his cousin for a while and then worked for the Union Bank and Trust Company. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10-11

There were quite a few blacks in Helena when he arrived --many were from the Army. Two black churches in Helena. Many other towns in Montana had black residents. Other forts in Montana. Ft. Harrison was mostly black soldiers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11-17

Recollections of black social clubs in the area. Al Walton was a black U.S. Marshall from Oklahoma. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17-22

The Powers family of Helena were quite powerful. He doesn't remember any outstanding black families. Generally the blacks stuck to themselves. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0-3

He has one daughter who lives in Portlad. He doesn't communicate with any other relatives. Other families in Helena. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3-4

Not very much in the way of black social activities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4-5.5

Worked as a porter in a hotel. No blacks owned or operated hotels that he knew of. Mrs. Banks thinks the cold weather prevented many blacks from settling. operated hotels that he knew of. Mrs. Banks thinks the cold weather prevented many blacks from settl 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5.5-8

Mrs. Banks was born in Montana--her father was born in Germany and was brought back to Montana by a Montana family. Her mother was French. Her family background. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8-11

Most blacks in Helena were brought as servants by white families. Many blacks left during winter. There was no difference in social life between blacks and whites. Black businesses in town. One black newspaper called The Plain Dealer. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11-13

Joe Clark's Tonsorial Parlor and also did charocaty (dentist) work and massage work. More about Al Walton, the marshall. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13-15

Prominent blacks in Helena--she remembers the C.W. Dorseys; Gladys Alexander became an opera singer. Taylor Gordon, a black singer from White Sulphur Springs. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 16 - 17

She worked checking wraps at the Montana Club. How they met. Black churches in Helena. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 17 - 20

She thinks most blacks in Helena now work as bartenders. There is also janitorial work available although there are not many blacks left in Helena. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 20 - 22

Generally the blacks voted for whoever they thought the best man was. Doesn't recall any blacks running for office. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 22 - 26

Many blacks moved away from Montana. Job opportunities for blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

His work for the highway department. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

They don't know any blacks in nearby towns. She talks about why blacks don't seem to settle in the area. They knew some of the calvarymen in Billings. No segregation of schools. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 2 - 5

Limited contact with Indians. Legend of York, a black settler who came with Lewis and Clark. Pompey's Pillar. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

They talk about their feelings about Montana and what their lives have been like. She likes the freedom of the West. He talks about his work at the Capitol Post Office. Cold weather. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 16

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Series CT 2/3: Flowers Sisters (Mabel, Myrtle) 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: nurse, actress

Geographical Areas Covered: Portland area

Interviewer: Unknown

Location of Interview: Portland, Oregon

Date of Interview: September, 1974

Length of Interview: 30 min.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/24/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Interview with an older woman about going to Jamaica for sugarcane. Talks about her mother and her marriage to a Portuguese man who was killed. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Her father owned an oyster house in Astoria. His name was Roscoe Lee Dixon. Father's background. One of the sisters was born in 1894. She attended the Pacific School. The other sister attended the Ranier School. Other schooling. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 10

One became a nurse and tells how she got interested in it. Attended nursing school in San Francisco, graduating in 1915. Trouble getting work. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 15

The other sister talks about getting into the theatre at the age of 17 as a singer and dancer. She traveled for three years on the Orpheum circuit. Story about Mrs. Walker, her boss and Oscar Hammerstein. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 19

Other sister talks about getting nursing work. Their parents. Attending Catholic school in Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 26

A third sister talks about attending nursing school in Washington, D.C. Myrtle worked as a lab technician at Aberdeen Hospital. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

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Series CT 2/4: Kathelyn Bogle 

Scope and Contents note

Interviewer: Unknown (2 monologue)

Location of Interview: Portland, Oregon

Date of Interview: 9/10/74

Length of Interview: 6 min.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/24/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She tells the story of her husband's grandfather Richard W. Bogle who came to the Northwest in 1835 or so. Ran away from Jamaica at age twelve to New York. Wagon train West. Story of the Waldo family. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0-5

Richard W. Bogle married America Waldo, a slave of the Waldo's. She talks about their children and their accomplishments. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5-6

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Series CT 2/5: Mr. and Mrs.Claude Buckner 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Buckner-janitor, Mrs. Buckner-housewife

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Boise, Idaho

Date of Interview: 6/5/73

Length of Interview: 54 min.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/24/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She has been in Boise since 1909. Born in Pueblo, Colorado. He came to Idaho in 1923. Family back-- grounds. How his family came out west from Missouri. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

How her folks came out west from Georgia and Tennessee. Her father was a Baptist minister. Church activities in the Boise area. Her father's home became a Negro church. Eventually a church was built. Talks about the various churches in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 11

There were no social clubs in the area that she remembers. Blacks lived throughout Boise. Many blacks owned their own places. There was not much social life except for visiting. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11 - 14

Black businesses in Boise. She talks about the schools she attended. Talks about Jimmy Terrell who has done real well for himself. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 18

They have no contact with relatives in the South. Other contacts with relatives. Recollections of other black families they knew in Boise. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 22

Entertainment. Barbecues. She talks about chataquas that came through. Clothing styles. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 27

He talks about his work as a janitor for the Boise Overland Auto agency. Other janitorial jobs. Many blacks worked as waiters. Tom Brown owned a cleaning store in 1910 or so. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

He says blacks were generally Republican until recently. Their son ran for City Council but lost. She is a board member of the YWCA. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 6

Where blacks have moved to from Boise. Blacks in surrounding towns. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 10

Blacks had some contact with Mexicans, Chinese and Indians in the area. Many black soldiers around during World War II. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 13

They read the Chicago Defender and the Jet. They don't recall any black newspapers in the area. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 14

They talk about their feelings about their lives in Boise. He thinks feelings have changed towards the blacks. The Chinese restaurants wouldn't serve blacks. Talk about some of the younger blacks. She's tired of Boise a little; it's hard to get music for 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 14 - 24

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Series CT 2/6: Mr. and Mrs. James Chase 

Scope and Contents note

Geographical Areas Covered: Spokane

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Spokane, WA

Date of Interview: 11/2/72

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/24/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background--her father came from Mississippi to Spokane in 1890. He worked as a printer. Her uncle printed The Citizen. Her grandfather established the Calvary Baptist Church in Spokane. Several of her relatives were involved in owning and operatin 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 7

More about her father and the newspaper business. He was active in Masonic affairs, also. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Social conditions for blacks during her father's lifetime. Many blacks worked at the railroad station, the hotels, and the Spokane Club, a men's social club. Many had to work two jobs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

Her mother's family came from Maryland. Her grandfather was a barber in Spokane. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 16

Black politicians in the Pacific Northwest. Mr. Chase talks about why he came out to Spokane in 1934--there was more opportunity than in Texas. Change in attitude towards blacks and blacks themselves over the past 10 years. Hotel and restaurant accommodat 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 25

Planning for the conditions of blacks in the city. They would record how they were treated at various places in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 27

He owns and operates a body and fender company. Other Negro businesses in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

Church work. She was involved with many of the churches in town. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Black organizations in town. Federation of Colored Women's Club. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 2 - 3

They do not maintain much contact with relatives. Recollections of famous blacks from Spokane. Touring church singers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 8

The Seattle Enterprise. The NAACP started in 1918 in Spokane. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 10

Discussion about black Episcopalian colleges in the East. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 11

He talks about his decision to run for City Council in 1969. Spokane is very conservative and he advocated getting Federal aid. Talks about the campaign. He thinks he indirectly helped the City Council to establish the Housing Authority. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 19

More about black businesses in town. The Civil Rights movement has really helped blacks. Discussion about the distinction that many whites make between black pioneers and blacks that have come out more recently. There are many more opportunities for black 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 19 - 27

Not many social outlets for blacks in Spokane. Many activities were integrated. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 28 - 30

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Series CT 2/7: Mrs. James Clow 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: housewife

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1895

Geographical Areas Covered: Portland

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Portland, Oregon

Date of Interview: 7/20/73

Length of Interview: 25 min.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/28/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She came to Portland in 1936 when she was married, from Richmond, Virginia. Talks about her husband's family from Texas. Courtship and marriage. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Mount Olivet Baptist Church, the largest black church in Portland. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 5

Blacks were scattered throughout the town although all the black churches were in Montibelo. Many owned their own homes. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Attended University of Oregon from 1937-1941. Active blacks in the community. Civil rights workers, Her husband's involvement in the NAACP. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

She hasn't maintained many contacts with relatives. Other black families in Portland. Recreation. Politics. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

More on residential patterns of blacks in Portland. Albina. Read the Chicago Defender, Black newspapers in Portland. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 18

Feelings about living in Portland-its advantages and disadvantages. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 19

Husband's involvement with the Urban League. The church women organized a club to help blacks get served in restaurants. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 25

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Series CT 2/8: Mrs. Margaret Cogwell 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: restaurant owner, farm wife

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 9/29/72

Length of Interview: 30 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/28/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She came from Newton, Kansas in 1910. Family back-- ground. How she came to Seattle. She ran a little restaurant on Seneca for a couple of years. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Moved south of Olympia to Rochester in 1919--they raised strawberries, turkeys, and cucumbers. They farmed there until 1953 when she returned to Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Black churches in Seattle. Her husband's family background. Work on the farm. She talks about her children. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 12

Most of the blacks lived in East Madison in Seattle in 1910. Most owned their homes. Well-known black families in Seattle. Black businesses. Visited- with relatives in Texas often. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 16

Entertainment--dances, church, picnics. Lodges in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 21

Her husband worked on the roads for the city. Blacks in Olympia. Mr. Barnette, who had a band, has a local park named after him. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 26

Her feelings about how children are raised differently nowadays. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

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Series CT 2/9-10: Reverend and Mrs. Sam Coleman 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Coleman--minister; Mrs. Coleman--schoolteacher

Birthdate of Interviewee: Mrs. Coleman--1903

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Pasco, WA

Date of Interview: 12/7/72-12/8/72

Length of Interview: 2 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/28/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Her family background, From Mississippi and came to Washington in 1916. Her father worked for the rail-- road. Other blacks in Pasco. Most lived in railroad cars on the east side of town. Then they went to California and Chicago. Life in Chicago. They ret 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 10

They married in 1927. She was the first colored girl to graduate from Pasco High School (1924). She almost married a foot doctor. Her experiences teaching school. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

There were no black farmers in the area. Other black families in the area. He was from Chicago and came out to Pasco in 1944. He worked as a cook for the railroad in 1915 or s-o. The Great Northern paid more than the Pullman Company. He then went into the 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 21

He bought property in Pasco in the 30's but didn't move there. He talks about his businesses in Seattle- he was the first Negro general contractor in Washington. Experiences working in Denver in 1920--there was trouble working with whites. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 30

Their marriage. She had attended Whitman College. More about his businesses in Seattle and his associates. How he got his hardware business. Two colored lawyers in Seattle. He lost a lot of money on the hardware store. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 6

Working as a contractor. The unions didn't like coloreds working in certain areas of town. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 8

They returned to Pasco in 1944. He had pastored a rescue mission in Olympia until 1938 when the Lord told him he was evangelistic. They traveled contin-- uously until the gas rationing. Then he worked in order to get gas stamps. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 12

They built a home on their property in Pasco in 1943. He established the first black church in 1944 on the request of white ministers in town. Many were coming into town for the Hanford project. Problems with building the church because he wanted to build 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 12 - 18

His activities with the Missionary Pentecostal Asso-- ciation until 1944. They worked more with white people than with colored when they were travelling evangelists. Black churches throughout the West. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 18 - 22

More about his church and other churches in Pasco. He ran his church until 1949. In 1944 through the NAACP and the Urban League they tried to get restaurants to serve blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 22 - 26

More about the NAACP. The whites in town wanted all the minorities on the east side of the RR tracks. The problems he had trying to build on the west side. Troubles with his lawyers. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 10

Talks about the land he owned and who he sold it to. Talks about his relatives. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 13

He has never been involved with politics. A rich man and a politician have no place in heaven. More about problems building in Pasco. He had a cafe in town, too, and fed some of the black workers on the Hanford project. Problems getting paid. Other proper 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 23

Selling his property after the war. He refused to buy property on the east side of the tracks on principle. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 26

Talks about the railroad and working with Turner, a redcap. Other families in the area. Her parents owned property in Pasco, too. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

More about their evangelism in mostly white churches. Black churches in Seattle. Growth of black churches in the Northwest. Black evangelists. The Pentecostals often criticized other religions. He talks about his own religious ideas. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 29

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Series CT 2/11: Mrs. Thelma DeWittig 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: first black public schoolteacher in Washington

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle area

Interviewer: Charles Ramsay

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 1/18/73

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/30/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She came to Seattle from Texas in 1947 to do graduate work at University of Washington. She was an only child. Schooling in Texas. Family background. Talks about her teaching in Texas. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

The black church in Seattle. Communists organizations. NAACP and the Urban League were connected with the church. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 7

Travelling on the train first-class from Dallas. Problems with discrimination. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Other black organizations she worked with. Clubs in the area. More blacks lived in the central area. Not many owned property; most blacks weren't born in Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

Black businesses in Seattle. Black undertaker did a good job. She and her husband lived in a large mansion in Seattle that another woman owned. Church club meetings in the house. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Problem with a woman who thought the first black teacher in the area should have been from Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 21

Teaching in the Seattle area. Not many blacks went on to college. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 24

Discrimination towards her while at the University of Washington. A black had never taught a white child in Seattle. Recommendations for her first job. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 24 - 30

More about teaching. Clothing styles in the 401s. She was always "smartly dressed." other blacks who dressed well. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Sports activities that blacks participated in. Enter-- tainment included private parties and dances. Blackwell was a famous black-musician from the area. Other black singers and dancers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 6

Teaching union. Trouble with discrimination when going on conventions. Other black teachers hired after her. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 11

Political persuasion was generally Republican among blacks. She was a delegate to several Democratic conventions, Black politicians. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 14

She generally kept up with what other blacks in the area were doing. She feels communication among blacks is better now. She tried to keep up with the black journals and newspapers. She maintained contacts with people she worked with in the South. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 14 - 21

Negroes feelings towards other minorities and vice versa. Organizations she has worked for. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 21 - 25

Her feelings about living in Seattle and the cooperation blacks have received. Discipline in the schools has been a problem. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 25 - 29

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Series CT 2/12: Mrs. Armeta Duncan 

Scope and Contents note

Birthdate of Interviewee: 4/12/85

Geographical Areas Covered: Butte, Montana

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Butte, Montana

Date of Interview: 4/4/74

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/31/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Born in Virginia near where Lee surrendered. Story of her aunt being visited by Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant. Family background. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 1 - 4

She traveled from Philadelphia with a couple as a servant in 1905. She stayed in Butte because she met her future husband. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 7

She worked at the Four Jacks Club as a waitress. Other jobs. Two black churches when she moved to Butte, a Methodist and a Baptist. Other Negro social clubs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Black businesses. Blacks were employed throughout the city. Frank Castle, the black policeman. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

Well-known blacks in Butte. Her family and their accomplishments. She maintains contact with relatives in Virginia. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 20

Other black families in Butte. Sports activities. Black baseball team. Black musicians. Charlie Pride is from Montana. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 27

NAACP Chapter in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 27 - 29

Her husband was a foot specialist. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 29 - 30

She talks about her husband's work. She reads from an article about him. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Jobs other blacks had in town--janitors, waiters, porters. Many were personal servants of wealthy mine owners. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 2 - 5

The black servants were generally well-treated by their white employers. Names of some of the rich families. Blacks who worked in local government. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 10

Why black people moved out of Butte. Many went to work in the shipping yards in WW II. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 12

Blacks in surrounding areas. Publications they read to keep up with black activities in other places. Her daughter talks a bit about working for the Amsterdam News. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Blacks interactions with other minorities in Butte. Other black newspapers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 14 - 19

Feelings about living in Butte. Her daughter also talks about life in Butte. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 19 - 23

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/13: Dr. Walter Duncan 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: podiatrist

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1909

Geographical Areas Covered: Butte

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Butte, Montana

Date of Interview: 4/3/74

Length of Interview: 50 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/31/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background. How his parents came to Butte. His father was a podiatrist. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Two black churches in Butte until 1928 when many blacks moved away from Butte. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Black Mason organization. Other black social clubs. Most of the blacks lived in the central part of town. Many owned their own property. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Black businesses in Butte. His father owned a barbershop for a while. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

His schooling in Butte. Schoolmates and their accomplishments. His children and their accomplish-- ments. Maintains contacts with relatives in Wash-- ington, D.C. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Black sports activities and well-known athletes. Black baseball teams in the late 20's and early 30's. Other entertainment for blacks. Musicians, singers, and dancers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 24

More about his father's education and professions. National organization for podiatrists. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 24 - 30

Organizations he belongs to. He remembers most blacks as Democrats. Not many black politicians. Other jobs blacks did. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Talks about why the black population has decreased in Butte. He feels it is partly due to prejudice. Not many black miners until WW II. Pit mining. Places blacks moved--many went to the shipyards in Seattle. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

Blacks in surrounding towns. He thought about passing his race by. His mother kept him up with black acti-- vities in other places. Talks about his schooling. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 13

He was impressed by Jelly Roll Morton and Louis Armstrong as a child. Associations with other minorities; underworld Chinese. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 18

His feelings about living in Butte. Several factions of blacks in Butte. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 18 - 21

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/14: Verron Dunning 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: postman

Birthdate of Interviewee: February, 1882

Geographical Areas Covered: Centralia

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor and ?

Location of Interview: Centralia, WA

Date of Interview: 8/24/72

Length of Interview: 30 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 5/31/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Talks about George Washington, a local pioneer. He was raised by a black woman in Michigan. Other blacks in Centralia; Stacy Kunos. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Talks about William Bryan and his wife who were early pioneers. Other blacks in his neighborhood. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 5

Talks about coming West. The railroad started in 1889. Immigrant trains. His schooling. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

George Washington's wife was white. Stories of Washington's early life. The story is that he was poisoned by whites. Washington was involved with the church but not in politics. He was the richest man in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 12

George Bush, another pioneer in the area. Washington died in 1935. More about George Washington and his children. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 15

Talks about Centralia-The First 50 Years. Other blacks in Centralia; there are none in Centralia now. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 18

How George Washington saved the town. He was very generaous in selling the land he owned. He was part Jewish. Talks about some of the pictures he has. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 21

George Washington didn't keep much contacts back East although he did take a trip back there once. The town was started in 1890. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 28

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/15-16: Lawrence Freeman 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: horsetrainer

Birthdate of Interviewee: Jan. 7, 1897

Geographical Areas Covered: Clarkston, WA; Montana

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Clarkston, WA

Date of Interview: 6/12/74

Length of Interview: 1 hr. 10 min

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/4/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Has lived in Clarkston since 1919. Family background. How his parents met and moved to Montana. His father worked with horses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

There were never many blacks in Montana. Talks about the ranch his family lived on in Montana. Mr. Bailey, who became rich with his horse ranch. Story of building a castle for a winning horse. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 9

He practically grew up on a horse. He was taught to ride race horses. Various jobs his father held. Talks about his work as a trainer. He was too tall to be a jockey. Talks about the savvy it takes to be a jockey. He won races all over the Pacific Northwe 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 19

During World War I he trained horses for officers at Camp Dodd. He was in the Army until 1919 when he started racing horses professionally. Harness racing in Montana. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 23

Training saddle horses. He always worked by contract. He trained many winning horses. Racing in California. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 30

Training Sea Biscuit in California. Barnyard race horses. The expense of training a racehorse. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Eventually settled in Clarkston in 1919. More about horses he trained in Clarkston. Story of a race in Seattle. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 12

Working with the rodeo as a bareback rider. George Fletcher, the rodeo rider. He was part Indian and the judges wouldn't look at him. Being black wasn't a problem. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Talks about his wife, a Umatilla-French woman who died during childbirth. His son is also dead. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Work with the Lewiston Saddle Club. He has trained lots of kids to ride. His philosophy about teaching. He worked for the saddle club from 1940 to 1954 or so. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 17 - 23

Other jobs he worked--porter, part-time help window washing. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 23 - 26

Here the tape becomes distorted and is difficult to understand. Relations with other minorities in the area. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

Other ethnic groups in the area. In California he worked with a lot of Mexicans. Many Indians in the area. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0-2

His trick with the nail in his ring to get the horse to run. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 2-3

His feelings about living in the Northwest. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3-7

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/17: Mr. and Mrs. Reginald Frye 

Scope and Contents note

Geographical Areas Covered: Yakima

Interviewer: Charles Ramsey

Location of Interview: Yakima, WA

Date of Interview: 8/21/72

Length of Interview: 45 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/5/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She talks about how much of her history has been lost. Discussion about blacks who lost their black identities when they came West. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Blacks in Yakima. Family background. Homesteading. He thinks most blacks came out around 1889. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 9

Talk about Corfu, a black community in the area. General discussion about George Washington and other black families. Story of some blacks who struck gold. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 16

More talk about migrating blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 18

Black barbershops in Yakima. He saw possibilities for work in Yakima. How he came to Yakima. All of his brothers eventually came out, too. Other jobs he had. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Selling black products. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Talks about his family history. His father was a black- smith. How his father made his own tools. Shows pictures of his family. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

He talks with the two interviewers about where they are from. The name "George Washington" and its popularity among blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 15

General discussion about friends. She talks about her father and family background. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 15 - 22

They talk about the Mormons and the blacks who accompanied them. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 22

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/18: Carver Gayton 

Scope and Contents note

Birthdate of Interviewee: Oct. 18, 1938

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle

Interviewer: Unknown

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 8/7/73

Length of Interview: 50 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/5/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background. Father born in Seattle, mother from Nashville. Talks about growing up in Seattle. Parents worked for the post office. Other jobs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Black churches. YMCA and YWCA. Other social activities. Famous black performers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 7

The Hendrix family. Other social clubs. Grandfather's activity in Republican Party. Many blacks lined up with leftist concerns. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Father worked at the Black Diamond Coal Mine in what is now Hazelwood. Grandfather moved there in the 20's. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 12

Black businesses in Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Talks about his children. Not many contacts with relatives back East. Other black families in the area. Changes in black fashions. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Sports activities. Carver AC's an all-black baseball team. Other social activities. Black music. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 25

Talks about his job as a lawyer. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 26

Problems blacks had in Seattle. Unions. Jobs available for blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Blacks in politics. Black social clubs and frater-- nities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 6

Books his family reads to keep up with black activities and history. Black newspapers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 9

Contacts with other minorities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 9 - 11

Thoughts about growing up in Seattle. Most of his friends were white. As he got older he started to realize discrimination against him. Feelings about discrimina-- tion and how difficult it is to deal with. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 17

He doesn't see Seattle as different from other places in the attitudes towards blacks. He feels more secure back East where there are more blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 17 - 20

Talks about his parents and their feelings about being black. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 20 -22

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/19: Virginia Gayton 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: post office worker

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1903

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 2/5/74

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/5/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background. Early life, high school in Spokane. Attended Howard University in Washington, D.C. in the early 20's. Father was a railroad worker. How his parents got married. There were no good jobs for her parents who both had been schoolteachers i 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

The First African Methodist Episcopal Church in Seattle. Other black churches. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Black social clubs. YMCA and YWCA. The Coleman family. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 9

Most blacks lived in the northern section. Real estate agents who tried to keep all the blacks in one area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 13

Black businesses she recalls. The Gross family. Black community leaders. Rosten and the Marine Association. Names other blacks she remembers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 21

She didn't maintain contacts with Eastern relatives. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 22

Clothing styles. Describes her wedding dress. Zoot suits. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 26

Black athletes and black teams. It was hard for boys that wanted to play football at University of Washington. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 27

Famous black musicians and dancers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Talks about her work at the post office and other jobs. Job opportunities for blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 2 - 4

Many blacks turned from Republican to Democratic. Black politicians. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 6

Many blacks moved into the area during WW II. Black newspapers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 12

Black political and civil rights organizations. Other minority groups. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 12 - 15

Her feelings about the Pacific Northwest and her experiences. She never had trouble finding work. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 15 - 22

Talks a bit about the older folks who lived in Seattle. Family structure. More about clothing styles. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 22 - 30

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/20: Mr. and Mrs. Levi Harris 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Harris--shipyard worker, highway worker; Mrs. Harris--house-wife

Geographical Areas Covered: Portland, OR

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Portland, OR

Date of Interview: 7/18/73

Length of Interview: 50 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/6/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He came to Portland in 1930. She arrived in 1933. Family backgrounds. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Black Baptist church in Portland. Other black churches. Black Population. Black families. Job opportunities for blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

Black social clubs. Blacks lived in all parts of Portland. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 12

Vanport was a housing project built by the city,where many blacks lived. Blacks were actively recruited to work in the shipyards. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 18

NAACP and the Urban League. Black community and business leaders in Portland. When the war started many blacks moved into the community. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 23

They keep in contact with Eastern relatives. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 25

He talks about his job working for various oil companies. Entertainment. Famous black singers and dancers. More about black clubs. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Blacks were about equally Republican and Democratic. Black politicians. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Many blacks left Portland. They know a few blacks in other states. How they find out about black activities elsewhere. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 7 - 12

Not too much contact with other minorities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Their feelings about living in Portland. Jobs blacks have now. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 14 - 22

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/21: Ray Henry 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: construction worker, railroad worker, hotel owner

Geographical Areas Covered: Pasco

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Pasco, WA

Date of Interview: 12/8/72

Length of Interview: 50 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/6/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He came to Pasco in 1943 from Kansas. Growth of Pasco. Other black families in town when he arrived. Black churches. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

The East side of town was set aside for Negroes. Most bought their own land. Trailer camps. Black businesses. Many blacks left for jobs elsewhere. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

He was fired in 1943 but eventually got another job. wages and opportunities were better here than in Kansas. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 10

More about the black churches. Black social clubs. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 13

Well-known blacks in the community. Clothing styles. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 15

Black baseball team in the 40's. Other entertainment. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 17

The union. There were some black officers. Black politicians. Most blacks were Democrats. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 19

More about his various jobs in Kansas and Arkansas. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 21

Black newspapers. Contact with other ethnic groups was limited. There were many racial incidents in the 40's. Very few black supervisors. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 27

Blacks in the school. Memories of black soldiers in the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

Why he decided to leave Kansas. Talks about the different places he has lived in Pasco. He owned a hotel for 20 years. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 6

More about soldiers who came into town. He later built a motel. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 9

Art Fletcher, a well-known community leader and politician. Blackco-op. Many had stock in the co-op service station. Black insurance companies. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 9 - 15

Other people Mr. Taylor should talk to. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 15 - 17

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/22-23: Franklin James and Mrs. Franklin James 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: coal miner, cannery worker

Geographical Areas Covered: Roslyn, Yakima

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Yakima, WA

Date of Interview: 8/21/72

Length of Interview: 70 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/4/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Father worked for railroad in Virginia. Came to Washington in 1898. Family background. Father's stories about a Confederate soldier. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Education for blacks. His first job as a coal miner. Strikes. He worked in the mines from 1917-1924. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 9

He played piano. Other black musicians in the area. Enter-- tainment in the local tavern. Bootleg whiskey. Black baseball teams. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 13

Well-known blacks in the area. They maintained contact with some eastern relatives but they gradually lost touch. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 16

Blacks in the mines in Roslyn. Black population in Roslyn. Most blacks left when the mines shut down in the early 30's. He hoboed back east and eventually got married in 1926 after leaving the mines. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 20

Black businesses in Roslyn. Black churches. Holidays. Emancipation Day. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 20 - 26

Company store in Roslyn. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Newspapers they read to keep up with black activities--The Seattle Enterprise was Negro owned and run. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 4

Indians in the area. Discrimination against Chinese. Black settlers. Black athletes. Blacks in WWI. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

Mr. Shepard who brought many blacks to the area. Local trans- portation. Early automobile owners. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 11

More about the mine--most of the bosses were white. Mining equipment. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 13

Mine explosion in 1910 or so. Workers benefits. There was no insurance or retirement. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 17

Feelings about what it was and is like to be a black living in Roslyn and in Yakima. Talks about working in Yakima. (His wife talks but is too far away from the microphone to be understood.) 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 17 - 22

George Fletcher, a black cowboy. Other black cowboys. Fletcher was better than Yakima Canutt but discrimination kept him down. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Black families in Yakima. General discussion about black oldtimers and the need for this kind of collection. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 7

The NAACP in Yakima. She was very active in the organization. Problems getting served in restaurants in Yakima. A lawsuit in the late 30's. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 12

Segregation came about as a result of attitudes of many Southern settlers. Discrimination when he worked in the mines in Roslyn. Problems at the cannery where she worked. Their daughter and her accomplishments. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 18

She remembers that many blacks owned their own homes in Yakima because it was hard to find good places to rent. Differences for blacks in the West and blacks in the South. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 21

Her activities in politics. They were Democrats and never were involved with the Republicans. Their son. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 27

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/24: Raymond Johnson 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: maintenance

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1925

Geographical Areas Covered: Missoula

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Missoula, MT

Date of Interview: 3/3/74

Length of Interview: 20 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction:6/6/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

His parents were from Minneapolis. He was born here. How his parents met and married. Family background. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Black Methodist church in Missoula. Black population. Jobs blacks worked in. Almost all owned their own property. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 5

Jimmy Dorsey, a successful black lawyer from Missoula. Maintains contacts with relatives. Other black families. Black athletes. Famous blacks that came through the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 9

Most blacks were Democrats. Talks about his stint in the service during World War II. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 10

The black population has really decreased in Missoula. Job opportunities better elsewhere. Blacks in neighboring towns. Black newspapers and magazines. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 13

Blacks had a lot of contact with other minority groups, especially Indians. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 14

His feelings about his life and experiences in Missoula. More about when blacks started moving out of Missoula. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Talks about some of the early Negro cowboys. Development of civil rights legislation. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 21

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/25: Frank King 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: farmer

Birthdate/Interviewee: 1902

Geographical Areas Covered: norther Idaho

Interviewer: Charles Ramsay

Location of Interview: Tensed, ID

Date of Interview: 4/5/73

Length of Interview: 50 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/7/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Came out west in 1903. They got a homestead in 1910. How they got their homestead. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Real rough the first couple of years. Started with oats and wheat. Custom threshing outfits. How they gradually expanded their area of cultivation. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

Clearing the land. Chores before going to school. Chopping wood. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 11

Schooling. Six families lived in the valley where their homestead was. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11 - 14

Farming equipment was all horse-drawn. How they expanded their land holdings. He took over the farm in 1927 when his father died. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 21

Their experiences during the 1929 Depression. Decision to sell their cattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 23

Prices during the first World War. Talks more about their land. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Never involved in politics although they always voted. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 5

Why their parents decided to move out West from North Carolina. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Never any problems with discrimination. Problem with the teacher who wouldn't let the kids play together. Fun as a kid. Fishing and hunting. Travelling. Yellowstone Park. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 7 - 12

Going to Farmington, WA. No other Negroes in the area. A few lived in Coeur d'Alene. Other blacks he knew of. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 12 - 16

Feelings about life and experiences in the area. Farming is a free life. The price of land at present. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 16 - 19

A little contact with local Indians. Not many other ethnic groups in the area. Farm work and equipment. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 19 - 23

Clearing brush off their land. Butchering hogs. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 23 - 28

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/26: Mr. and Mrs. Randolph King 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. King--railroad worker, custodian

Geographical Areas Covered: Twin Falls, ID

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Twin Falls, ID

Date of Interview: 6/7/73

Length of Interview: 40 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/7/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He came to Twin Falls at the age of 24 from Oklahoma City. Working on the railroad. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

She was born in Memphis, he in Louisiana. They keep up contacts with relatives. No black churches in town. Blacks have lived all over town. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 8

Talks about the various jobs he has held. Black children in the local schools. Another Negro business. Other black families. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 14

Making a commercial for Kodak. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 16

Entertainment. Black club in town. Famous black singers and dancers who came through town. Black athletes. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 22

Job opportunities for blacks. Migrant workers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 25

Most of the blacks- are Democrats. He doesn't talk politics much because Idaho is a Republican state. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 28

Where blacks from Twin Falls have moved. Blacks in surrounding towns--they don't know too many. Black newspapers and magazines. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Black farmer in the area. Not much contact with ethnic groups in the area. Black soldiers in the area. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 7

Experiences and feelings about living in Twin Falls. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/27-28: Mr. and Mrs. William King 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: farmer

Birthdate of Interviewee: Mr. King - 1894

Geographical Areas Covered: northern Idaho

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Tensed, ID

Date of Interview: 4/5/73

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/8/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Stump ranching in northern Idaho. He worked for I.A. Brown. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Life in North Carolina before they moved West. Family back-- grounds. Her father worked in a tobacco plant. Durham, North Carolina. How they came West. Her work in Spokane. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 9

More about the blacks in Spokane. She talks about her family. Her early religious upbringing. Calvary Baptist Church in Spokane. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 15

Their courtship and marriage. Talk a bit about the Indians. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 17

Why he decided to homestead where he did. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 20

She tells about working in the Davenport Hotel. More about how they met. First car. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 20 - 23

He had his own horses and started raising oats, barley, and potatoes. He also helped his brothers. Getting stumps out of the ground. Raising cattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 30

More about raising cattle. He raised a few hogs. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Hard to start a new farm now. The local Indians. Land has increased in value tremendously since they bought their land. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 9

One of their granddaughters works in Pullman. Other children. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 9 - 11

Farm equipment and land. Pat Walsh, the railroad inspector. Well-to-do blacks in Spokane. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 15

His brothers, their places, and families. Their children. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 15 - 20

They like living in the country. Wildlife in the area. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 20 - 23

He was drafted and went into the service during WW I. Burial detail. The campaigns were segregated. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 23 - 30

This tape is William King talking generally about the King's early life in northern Idaho. There is considerable background buzzing and some of the tape is completely inaudible. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 1-30

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/29: William Knott 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Tailor

Birthdate of Interviewee: March 7, 1896

Geographical Areas Covered: Great Falls, MT

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Great Falls, MT

Date of Interview: 4/2/74

Length of Interview: 40 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/18/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

His parents came by train from Memphis in 1892. Family background. Early Great Falls--sporting girls and cow punchers. Father first worked as a janitor. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Not many Negroes in Great Falls. Black barbershops wouldn't cut blacks' hair. Black church. The African Methodist Episcopal Church. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Black social clubs. There were not enough colored men in town to organize anything. No Negro section of town. Other black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 11

Schooling. There was no segregation in the school but prejudice was obvious once he got out of school. Alva Jacobs, a well-- known black from the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11 - 14

He is in close contact with other relatives. Large black families in the area. Sports activities. Entertainment. Shows that came through town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 18

Describes his work as a tailor--he had two shops. Worked 14 years for the state liquor board. Other jobs available for blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 22

Most blacks were Democrats. Black politicians and government workers. Blacks left the city for work elsewhere. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 27

Many blacks were railroad men and moved with the railroad. Blacks in surrounding towns. He always kept in touch with other blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

He didn't care for the Chicago Defender. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 4

Contacts with other ethnic groups--they always got along with the Mexicans and the Indians. Black soldiers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 7

His experiences and feelings about living in Great Falls. He loves the mountains and the climate. Hunting and fishing. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/30: James Lee 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: porter; active in NAACP

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1907 Release: No

Geographical Areas Covered: Portland, OR

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Portland, OR

Date of Interview: 7/20/73

Length of Interview: 35 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/11/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Came to Portland in 1929 from Texas. Family background. He was a railroad worker. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Black churches in Portland. Black social clubs and organizations. Blacks lived mostly between the river and Broadway. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 2 - 5

Well-known blacks in the area. NAACP. He has one daughter who attended school in Portland. Maintains contact with relatives in Texas. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 9

Entertainment for blacks. Famous singers and dancers. Work as a porter for the Pullman Company. Other work. Black unions. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 13

Blacks coming into Portland during World War II. Most blacks were Republican through the 30's. Black politicians. Ship-- yard work, during WW II. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 18

Housing for blacks in Vanport City which was washed away in the 50's. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 23

He still thinks lots of new blacks come into Portland. Knows blacks in surrounding areas. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 25

Found out about blacks in other areas through the NAACP. The Sentinel, a black newspaper. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 27

One school named after a black. No contact with other ethnic groups. Feelings about living in Portland. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

More about his feelings about living in Portland. Not many jobs were open to blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

More about work in the NAACP. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 4

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/31: Rev. and Mrs. Greenwood Luster 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: He is a minister. She works at a food processing plant.

Geographical Areas Covered: Hermiston

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Hermiston, OR

Date of Interview: 7/18/73

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/11/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He went to work at Hanford in 1942 from Louisiana. Other work. Travelled around and settled in Hermiston in 1949. Wife did housework and workpd for telephone company. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

She came to the Northwest from Arkansas in 1941. Work in Portland and Pendleton. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 9

Why he came out to the North-west. He helped to start the first black church in Hermiston. How the church got started. Reverend Banks. Church attendance now. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 19

His family background. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 22

Blacks live all over town. In the 50's most lived in the west part of town. Not many own property. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 27

Well-known blacks in the community. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

Major industries in Hermiston now. Job opportunities for blacks. She talks about her job. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

They maintain contact with their relatives. Main entertainment is church. James Goho (sp?) catered to the Negros which made him unpopular among other whites. Discrimination. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 10

The Smith family. Other forms of entertainment for blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 13

Most blacks were Democrats. Where blacks moved when they left Hermiston. The housing is much better now. Blacks in surrounding areas. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 16

How they find out about blacks in other areas. Many blacks worked with Mexican-Americans. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 16 - 19

How she feels about her life in Hermiston. He talks about his experiences living in Hermiston. He feels spiritual work is needed. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 19 - 27

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/32: Mr. and Mrs. Isadore Maney and Mr. Maney's mother 

Scope and Contents note

Birthdate of Interviewee: Mr. Maney--1931; Mrs. Maney--1923; Mr. Maney's mother-1895

Geographical Areas Covered: Portland, OR

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Portland, OR

Date of Interview: 7/20/73

Length of Interview: 50 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/12/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Mr. Maney's mother talks about her family background. Her grandfather moved to Montana. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Mr. Maney tells how his parents ended up in Portland where he was born. Black churches in Portland. Blacks lived in several parts of town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

Black social clubs and organizations. Black businesses. Many railroad workers from the South. Other job opportunities for blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 12

Schooling and jobs Mr. Maney has held. Well-known blacks in the community. What Portland was like for blacks through the 20's. Law which prohibited blacks from owning property in Oregon. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 19

Mr. Maney's mother talks about growing up black in Montana. They maintain much contact with relatives. Other black families in Portland. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 25

Effect the War (WW II) had on black migration to the Portland area. Vanport, the housing section many blacks lived in while they worked at the shipyards. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 30

More about the effect of WW II on black population in Portland. Blacks in high school in 40's and 50's. Opportunities for blacks in the 40's and 50's. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Black baseball teams. Black merchants and businesses. Famous black musicians and singers. Job opportunities for blacks after the War. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

Most blacks were Democrats. Black politicians. Blacks in government jobs. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 11

Blacks he knows in surrounding areas. Black newspapers and magazines he reads to keep up with black activities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 15

Not much contact with other ethnic groups. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 15 - 16

They all talk about their feelings about living in the Northwest and in Portland. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 16 - 19

Talks a bit about his grandfather's experience with the Ku Klux Klan. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 19 - 21

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/33: Ethel Monroe 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: registered nurse

Geographical Areas Covered: Missoula, MT

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Missoula, MT

Date of Interview: 4/5/74

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/12/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background. Father from Tennessee. Parents settled in Missoula around 1919 or so. Black churches in Missoula. Not any black clubs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Blacks lived all over town. Many owned their own places-- many whites wouldn't rent to blacks. Black businesses. Her uncle ran a cleaning service. Not much contact with relatives. Other black families. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 7

Black sports. Jim Dorsey, a black lawyer. Rheinhardt was a well-known athlete. Other entertainment for blacks. Famous blacks who came through town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 11

Her work as a nurse. Most blacks she knew were Democrats. No black politicians or government workers. Black population in Missoula. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11 - 14

Many blacks were stationed at Ft. Missoula in the 1890's. Many of their descendants settled in Missoula. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 15

Blacks didn't work in the logging camps. Job opportunities for blacks. Population has declined. No entertainment was a problem. Many blacks moved to Seattle during World War II. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 21

Blacks in surrounding areas. How they found out what blacks were doing in surrounding areas. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 24

There was very little contact with Indians. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 24 - 27

Her feelings about living in Missoula. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/34: Sandy moss 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: diesel engineer

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle, WA

Interviewer: Unknown

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 12/2/72

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/12/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

His father was a stonemason who came to Seattle from Kansas. They were originally from North Carolina. Black churches. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Holiday celebrations shared by whites and blacks in the early 1900's. Blacks more or less lived alongside whites. Few blacks owned their own property until the late teens. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 7

A few black businesses--barbershops and hand laundries. School districting. Blacks in schools. Well-known blacks from the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 11

More about family background. His work as a diesel engineer. Keeps in contact with relatives in the East. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11 - 14

Black apartment houses in Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 16

Care for widows and orphans by church or fraternal orders. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 17

Clothing styles. Show people and travelling salesmen often wore the latest styles. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 19

Sports activities. Black baseball team. Good black baseball team from the Roslyn coal mines. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 25

Other forms of entertainment for blacks. Dances. Vaudeville acts. Black YMCA and black YWCA. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 30

Famous black singers and dancers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Whites wouldn't take Negros into the union. His father had trouble finding work. Story of building a hotel with Byrd, a black. In 1927 the brickmasons started accepting blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 3 - 7

Black politicians. He was turned down for a policeman's job. Blacks in government jobs in Olympia. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 7 - 11

More about his father's work building breweries. Working at the gasworks. When the strike came many blacks went to work at the coal mines. Blacks moved out of the area as other jobs opened up. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 16

Influx of blacks into Seattle during both World Wars. No news about blacks in local newspapers. The Pittsburgh Courier, a black newspaper. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 16 - 20

Trouble with Scandanavians and Swedes who refused to work with blacks. No trouble with black soldiers. No black transient workers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 20 - 25

How hard it is for blacks to get together. Strike at the dock. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 25 - 30

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/35: Mr. and Mrs. George Nelson 

Scope and Contents note

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Pendleton, OR

Date of Interview: 11/9/72

Length of Interview: 45 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/13/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He tells why he moved to Pendleton. Family background. Black churches in LaGrande and Walla Walla. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Establishing a black church in Pendleton in 1949. No black organizations outside of the church except for the NAACP. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 9

Black population in Pendleton is quite small. Blacks live all over town. Job opportunities. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 13

Many blacks owned their own places. Many came out in the late 40's and early 50's. Other black families. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 18

Black businesses. Entertainment. Athletics. The rodeo. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 26

Black cowboys in the rodeo. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 28

Black government workers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 28 - 30

Black newspapers. Discussion about what blacks call themselves. Transient black workers. Gandy-dancers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Travelling in the area. Blacks she knows in surrounding area. Families in town. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

Unintelligible. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 9

Their feelings about living in the Northwest. Job opportunities opening up although there aren't any factories. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 16

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/36: Flexan Pierce 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: houseworker

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1900

Geographical Areas Covered: Spokane, WA

Interviewer: Unknown

Location of Interview: Spokane, WA

Date of Interview: 10/30/72

Length of Interview: 40 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/13/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Came from North Carolina by train. Black churches. Other organ-- izations--NAACP. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Emancipation Day. Blacks lived all over town and many owned property. Negro businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 6

Father was very strict. Churchwork quite important. Schooling. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 6 - 8

Black population. Maintain contact with relatives in North Carolina. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 11

Her marriage. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 11 - 12

Other black families in Spokane. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 13

Clothing styles. Why people decided to move out West from the South. Her husband talks a bit about his early life (This is hard to understand). He talks about his experiences in World War II. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 21

Black clubs. Politics. What happened to blacks when they moved from Spokane. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 25

Unintelligible. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 30

General discussion about their family. How the times have changed. (This is very difficult to hear.) 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 10

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/37-38: Edward Pitter 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: ship and dock worker; deputy sheriff; post office worker

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle, WA; Spokane, WA

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 11/19/73

Length of Interview: 1 hr. 45 min.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/13/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Came to Seattle in 1909 from Jamaica. (He is very difficult to understand). Other work he has done in the Northwest. Why he decided to settle in Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 7

Buildings in Seattle he recalls. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 8

Family background. Born in Manchester, Jamaica, Other Jamaicans he knew in Seattle. Marcus Garvey, well-known black from Jamaica. Other famous blacks who visited Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 15

NAACP. Never joined a church in town. Joined the Masons in 1919 or so. More about black churches in Seattle when he moved here. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 21

Black clubs and lodges. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 25

Most blacks in the Madison Street district. Mr. Gross' hotel. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 27

More about Mr. Gross. Mr. Woodson who owned property in Spokane. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Most blacks owned their own homes. Negro businesses--mostly barbershops. Other blacks in the area. Black soldiers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

Working on a ship. Trip to the Orient. Story of having a good time in Shanghai. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 13

Discrimination in China. Experiences being black in various places. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 16

His marriage in 1916. How he met his wife. Their children. Not much contact with relatives. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 16 - 23

His wife and her relatives. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 23 - 26

Black baseball teams. T.S. Barnette. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

Early married life. More about black baseball teams and players. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Work as a deputy sheriff. Politics. He later worked for the Post Office. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 7

Entertainment for blacks. Dances. Story of a big dance. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Famous black singers and dancers from Seattle. Ray Charles and Quincy Jones. All the churches had good choirs. Other well-known blacks. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

Talks about some of the work he's done: insurance salesman, deputy sheriff, railroad worker, and coat check work. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 16

Politics. Young Man's Democratic Club. He organized other Democratic Clubs. Democratic Club activities. Other political clubs. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 22

Blacks in politics and government jobs. Bob Crane, whose father was an underworld figure. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 28

Policemen in 1919 or so. Other blacks in government jobs. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 28 - 30

Other blacks in government jobs. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 1

Many blacks from the South. Other black families he remembers. Many blacks moved to California. Mr. Porter. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 1 - 6

Black magazines and newspapers. News about blacks in other parts of the country. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 8

Not too much contact with other minorities. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 10

His feelings about his life in the Northwest. 

2, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 14

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/39: Mrs. Ollie Rucker 

Scope and Contents note

Geographical Areas Covered: Roslyn, WA; Franklin, WA

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Yakima, WA

Date of Interview: 7/22/72

Length of Interview: 30 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/13/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background. Father came to Roslyn as strike-breaker from Virginia. Later moved to mining area in Franklin in King County. Black social clubs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Doesn't remember any black politicians. Jim Shepardston, an influential black. Very well integrated area so there was no discrimination. Doesn't remember any trouble between black and white miners. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 8

How her parents happened to come out to the Northwest. There were a few mixed marriages in Roslyn. Blacks in other areas. Cleone and Barnette. Black families in the Yakima area. Corfu, the black community on the Columbia. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 15

Talk about other families in Roslyn. The Donaldson family. The Claxton family. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 19

No problem with discrimination. Schooling. Black miners. Ravensdale, a black mining community in King County. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 23

Her mother's father, a Scotsman. More about family background. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 26

Not many political activities that she recalls. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 27

Black businesses in Spokane. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 28 - 30

Negro population in Spokane was very small until World War II. Her family owned an orchard. The decline of the company. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Early Spokane. More about the decline of the company. What happened to the property after the business was finished. Her uncle's resort. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 13

Black social clubs. Many blacks owned their own property. Ideas about black stereotypes. Black intellectuals in the community. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 19

Activities for blacks in town. Her father's activities after the orchard business was finished. Her father's early life. The Quality Printing Company. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 19 - 26

She shows some photographs of family and friends and talks about them. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/40: Sam Smith 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: storekeeper; expeditor

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1922 Release: No

Geographical Areas Covered: Seattle

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 11/20/73

Length of Interview: 30 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/15/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family background. Originally from Louisiana. Permanently settled in Seattle in 1936 after being in the Army. Education. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Black churches, social clubs. Black political clubs he helped to organize. Much contact with relatives. Work as storekeeper and an expeditor, at Boeing. Many blacks at Boeing. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 2 - 6

Most blacks were Democrats. Black public officials and government workers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 6 - 9

How he got involved in politics. Talks a bit about local politics and his election for City Council in 1967. Election of 1969--- troubles in Seattle. His political philosophy. Mayoral candidates, in 1972. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 16

Feelings about more blacks being elected to office. He's never regretted going into politics. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 16 - 19

Legislation he was instrumental in passing. City ordinances he worked on. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 24

His feelings about living in the Northwest. Progress blacks have made in Seattle. The rest of this tape is another interview with an unidentified man and woman. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 24 - 28

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/41: Mrs. Virgil Stewart 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: farm wife

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1908

Geographical Areas Covered: Boise, ID

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location: Boise, ID

Date of Interview: 6/5/73

Length of Interview: 45 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/15/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Came to Boise in 1943 from Tennessee. Family background. Story of Wallace Cooky (sp?) , a white contractor who convinced her sister to move out West. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 6

Her brother-in-law was foreman of a ranch in Idaho. Later she and her husband moved out. Stripping a cow, Working at a dairy farm. Her work schedule was very difficult. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 6 - 12

After four years of working on another ranch, they bought their own place. Convincing their husbands to buy the place. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Attending church in town. Story of Reverend-Banks being put in jail. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 18

No black social clubs. Other black families in the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 21

More about life on the ranch. Did daywork and sewing. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 24

They often visited back in Tennessee. Other relatives. Enter-- tainment. Organized some social clubs. Going to the show. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 24 - 30

Husband's work for the city. She was a Republican but often voted Democratic. Her work as a registrar. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Blacks lived all over Boise. Many soldiers and their wives lived in Boise. Blacks in surrounding areas. Keeping up with black activities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 8

No contact with other minorities. Organizing a mission in a nearby town for Mexican transient workers. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 8 - 10

Feelings about living in Idaho. Always felt comfortable in Boise. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 12

Return to Table of Contents »


Series CT 2/42: Mrs. Henry Strong 

Scope and Contents note

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1888

Geographical Areas Covered: Roslyn

Interviewer: Charles Ramsay and Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Roslyn, WA

Date of Interview: 7/22/72

Length of Interview: 10 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/15/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

How she came to move to Roslyn. Reverend Brown's church. Other churches. Visiting relatives back East. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Mr. Shepardston got black people to come to work in the mines. Many blacks moved away from Roslyn. Well-known blacks in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 6

Not much problem with discrimination. Social Life. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 6 - 7

Many foreigners lived in town. No blacks worked for the city that she recalls. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 9

Talks about her brother and living in British Columbia. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 10

Talks about some picture albums she has. Other blacks in Roslyn. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 11

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Series CT 2/43-44: Jack Tanner 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: lawyer

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1919

Geographical Areas Covered: Tacoma, WA

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Tacoma, WA

Date of Interview: 1/20/79

Length of Interview: 1 hr. 30 min.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/15/79-6/18/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Parents migrated to Washington from Indiana and Mississippi in the late 1800's. Family background. Problems his grandmother had in Indianapolis. Father a longshoreman. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Black churches in Tacoma. Social life was limited to church activities. Role of the church. Black social clubs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

Many blacks and other foreigners lived in the central area of Tacoma. Black politicians. Other black officials and government workers. Job opportunities for blacks--most on the waterfront; no professionals. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 12

Education. Well-known blacks from the Tacoma area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Wife's family came from Mississippi in 1924 or so. Story of them being ordered out of Mississippi. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Black athletes. Entertainment was mostly provided by the church. No fraternal or social organizations. Black musicians and singers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 21

Some blacks joined unions. Many longshoremen joined the union. He talks about the development of the union movement. Blacks involved in the union. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 25

Many blacks started moving into the area in the late 30's. Black soldiers at Ft. Lewis. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 30

More about black soldiers. More came during the Korean War. GI Bill helped many blacks to go to school. Many middle-class blacks in the Northwest. Many whites did not like the influx of blacks. No outright discrimination but police brutality was not uncom 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

NAACP was fairly active. It was established in Tacoma in 1913. Miscegenation laws. His activities in the NAACP. Involvement in the civil rights movement. Marches. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 17

Talks about his involvement in Indian fishing rights demonstra-- tions. His work as a lawyer--arguing cases before the Supreme Court. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 17 - 27

Blacks have not been as active in politics as Indians have. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

More about Indian confrontations over fishing rights. He has been involved with this problem since 1964. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Blacks in politics. Black movements. He was state chairman for the Democratic Party in 1967. Friendship with Scoop Jackson. More about his political activities. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 7

His campaign for governor in 1968. His campaign platform. Work with the NAACP made him politically sophisticated. More about friendship with Jackson. Jackson's Politics. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 7 - 14

What he would have done had he been elected governor. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Bush Prarie named after a black who travelled with Lewis and Clark. Contact with other ethnic groups was minimal. Black soldiers. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 20

Feelings about living in the Pacific Northwest. 

2, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 27

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Series CT 2/45: Mr. and Mrs. Warner Terrell 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Terrell--porter, bellhop; Mrs. Terrell--wrap checker

Geographical Areas Covered: Boise, ID

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location: Boise, ID

Date of Interview: 6/5/73

Length of Interview: 40 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/18/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

She has been in Boise since 1932. He was born in Boise in 1909, Family background. Her family travelled with Brigham Young to Utah. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Black churches in Boise. She grew up in the Mormon religion, but later became Methodist. Black social organizations and clubs. Blacks generally lived across the tracks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 9

No segregation in the schools. Blacks in the schools. Well- known blacks from the community. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 14

Maintain contacts with relatives. Other black families in the Boise area. Entertainment. Black baseball team, the Boise Monarchs. Famous singers and dancers from Boise. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 18

Job opportunities for blacks have opened up. Many worked for hotels in town. Many rich people in Boise. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 23

Most blacks were Republicans. Not many black city workers or politicians in the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 27

Blacks in surrounding areas. Contact with other ethnic groups. Tracy Thompson, the cowboy. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Feelings about living in Boise. Changes for blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

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Series CT 2/46: Paul Thomas 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: historian

Interviewer: Joyce Stephens

Location of Interview: Seattle, WA

Date of Interview: 10/21/74

Length of Interview: 1hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/18/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Sources for his thesis on George Bush, a black pioneer. How he got interested in black history. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Various theories about George Bush and when he came West. The Bush family got along well with the Indians. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 9

Difficulty in tracing the Bush family tree. Trouble with research on George Bush who was relatively unknown. Bush's personality. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 15

Examination of the 1850 Census figures. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 18

Disposition of the Bush family possessions. Relationship of the Bush settlement with the Indians was always good. No diaries of the family. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 18 - 23

Other work George Bush did-guide, trapper. Why the Bush's settled where they did. Couldn't settle in Oregon due to legislation prohibiting blacks from owning property. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 30

Simms, the postmaster and Indian agent and his relationship with Bush. Trouble Bush had getting a clear title to his home-- stead. Laws passed about blacks in 1843. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

Story about claimjumpers on Bush's place in 1851 or so. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 4 - 10

Legislative manual first published in 1889. It has a biographical sketch of George Bush. Others who might have information on Bush. General talk about other information sources. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 18

Isaac Eby, formulated petition for Bush to get his land. Story of Eby getting his head chopped off by Indians. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 18 - 23

George Washington, a black in Centralia, and Bush getting confused. Problems between Eastern and Western Washington. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 23 - 27

The setting of the Washington boundary at the 49th parallel. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 27 - 30

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Series CT 2/47: Mrs. Tracy Thompson (Bertie Neoma) 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: cleaning woman

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1885

Geographical Areas Covered: Pocatello, ID

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Pocatello, ID

Date of Interview: 6/8/73

Length of Interview: 45 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/18/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Came to Pocatello in 1919. Originally from Missouri. Travelled around with her husband, a rodeo rider. Courtship and marriage. 4 - 5 More about her husbad's love to ride horses. Killed in Bozeman 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 4

More about her husbad's love to ride horses. Killed in Bozeman in 1939 while riding. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 4 - 5

Black church in Pocatello. Quite a few blacks in the community. Church activities. Black social clubs and organizations. Many blacks have moved now. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 10

Blacks lived all over. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 13

Well-known blacks in Pocatello. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 13 - 17

Family background--originally from Missouri. Other families in the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 20

Entertainment. Son played baseball with a white team in the early, 20's. Famous singers and dancers that came through. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 20 - 23

Job opportunities for blacks--many worked for the railroad. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 23 - 26

Blacks in politics. Many blacks were Democrats. Bothparties tried to attract the black vote. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

More about blacks and politics. No blacks ever ran for office. Blacks in government jobs. Her work for the county as a cleaning woman. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

She had 10 children. Talks about the 6 who are living and where they are now. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 7

Many blacks have moved away. Most came from the South. Blacks in surrounding areas. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 7 - 10

Other black cowboys in the Northwest. George Fletcher. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 11

Her husband and the Indians got along well together. Contact with other minorities. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 11 - 13

Feelings about living in the Northwest. Job and educational opportunities are good. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 13 - 15

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Series CT 2/48: Thomas and Ophelia Walker 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Walker-janitor

Birthdate of Interviewee: Thomas 1904, Ophelia 1903

Geographical Areas Covered: Ananconda, MT

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Ananconda, MT

Date of Interview: 4/4/74

Length of Interview: 30 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/19/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He came from Texas when he was 13. She's been in Montana since 1923. Family backgrounds. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Black churches in town. Black social clubs. Blacks lived all over town. Schooling. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 6

Well-known blacks from the area. Contact with relatives outside of Montana. Other black families. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 6 - 9

Black baseball team. Other entertainment. Picnics. Local band. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 9 - 12

His work as a janitor for 42 years. Jobs blacks had. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 14

Blacks in politics. Blacks in city and county jobs. Black- population. Many blacks-moved to Seattle. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 21

Blacks in surrounding towns. No contact with other minorities. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 21 - 26

Their feelings about living in the Northwest. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 26 - 30

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Series CT 2/49: Mr. and Mrs. John Woods 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: Mr. Woods--janitor

Birthdate of Interviewee: Mr. Woods--1889

Geographical Areas Covered: Yakima, WA

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Yakima, WA

Date of Interview: 8/5/72

Length of Interview: 40 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/19/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Family backgrounds. Their family was from Missouri. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Attended a white church until 1906 when a black church was established. The Missionary Society. Black social clubs she is involved with. He talks about black fraternal organizations for men. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 2 - 5

All the early pioneers owned their own homes. Other black families in the area. Black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 10

Most blacks were Republicans. Blacks in city and county jobs. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 10 - 12

His work on a ranch and later in a bank. City sites named after blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 15

Blacks and Indians got along fine. Not much discrimination. Contact with "Night Calvary". Black soldiers. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 19

Their son, Henry, became a prominent boxer--how he got started. He became lightweight champion of the Pacific Northwest. Story of his son catching a freight train to California when he was 16. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 28

Other well-known blacks from the area. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 28 - 30

Jobs blacks have in Yakima. Black population in the Yakima Valley. The Jones family, a black singing group. Black baseball team. Black athletes. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 6

Married for 60 years. More about her family background. (She shows some pictures and talks about them). 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 6 - 8

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Series CT 2/50: Charles Warren 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: contractor

Birthdate of Interviewee: 1927

Geographical Areas Covered: Boise, ID

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of Interview: Boise, ID

Date of Interview: 6/4/73

Length of Interview: 1 hr.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/19/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

Has lived in Boise since 1958. His feelings about racism and dis-- crimination in the Northwest. A qualified black has always been able to find work. Changes in Boise. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 5

Originally from Arkansas. Family background. Family moved to California. Father a minister who established Bethel AME Church in Boise. Other black churches in Boise. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 12

Black organizations and clubs. Not many blacks involved in politics. Leroy Jones, a black lawyer. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 12 - 15

He is president of the local NAACP. Most members are white. History of the local chapter. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 15 - 19

Blacks live all over town. A few discrimination problems. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 19 - 24

Not many black businesses in Boise. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 24 - 30

More about problems starting businesses owned by blacks. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 0 - 2

Maintains close contact with relatives. Blacks in surrounding areas. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 2 - 5

Black athletes in the area. Other forms of entertainment. Belinda Hubbard, a singer from the area. He has played saxophone for various bands. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 5 - 10

He now works as a masonry contractor. Involvement with program to recruit minorities. Placing non-union blacks in union positions. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 10 - 15

Many resources available to blacks in the Boise area although he feels they are not taken advantage of. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 15 - 21

No blacks on his construction crew because he can't find any qualified blacks who want to work. 

1, Side B Minutes (approx.): 21 - 26

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Series CT 2/51: C.A. White 

Scope and Contents note

Occupation of Interviewee: stockman, informational specialist

Geographical Areas Covered: Portland, OR

Interviewer: Quintard Taylor

Location of interview: Portland, OR

Date of Interview: 7/18/73

Length of Interview: 30 mins.

Abstractor: Margot H. Knight

Date of Abstraction: 6/19/79

Release: No

Restrictions: No

tape time

He came to Portland in 1947 from Texas. He did a lot of odd jobs at first. Family background. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 0 - 3

Mt. Olive Baptist Church in Portland. Other black churches. Black social clubs and organizations. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 3 - 5

Vanport, a black community between Vancouver and Portland. Most blacks lived in Albina area. Vanport flood in 1948. Not many black businesses. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 5 - 8

NAACP active since 1914, Well-known blacks, from the community, Phil Reynolds and Edgar Williams who worked with the NAACP. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 8 - 14

Kept in close contact with relatives in Texas. Entertainment for blacks. Black baseball teams. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 14 - 17

Work as a stockman and informational specialist. Industry in Portland. Job opportunities for blacks. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 17 - 20

Most blacks are Democrats. Blacks in county and city jobs. Black politicians. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 20 - 22

Most blacks remained in Portland. Contacts with blacks in surrounding areas. Portland Reporter, a black newspaper. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 22 - 25

City sites named after blacks. Black doctors in town. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 25 - 28

Feelings about living in the Northwest. 

1, Side A Minutes (approx.): 28 - 30

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