Guide to the Washington State University History 398 (Women in the West) Oral Histories, Student Papers, etc. 1979-1986
Archives 194

Summary Information

Washington State University Libraries, Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections
Washington State University. Department of History. History 398, History of Women in the American West.
Washington State University History 398 (Women in the West) Oral Histories, Student Papers, etc.
Archives 194
Date [inclusive]
3 Linear feet of shelf space, 6 Boxes
Collection materials are in English.
The materials generated by students of Washington State University's History 398 course, History of Women in the American West, consist of research notes, research papers, oral history interviews, transcriptions and abstracts of interviews, releases of literary rights to interviews, and other such documents.

Preferred Citation

[Item Description]

Washington State University History 398 (History of Women in the American West) Student Projects, 1979-1986 (Archives 194)

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA.

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Womens' history projects, including oral history efforts and papers based on regional subjects were undertaken by students enrolled in Washington State University's History 398 course, History of Women in the American West, on several occasions from 1979 onward. The organizer of this effort was Professor Susan Armitage of the WSU Department of History.

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Scope and Content

The materials generated by students of Washington State University's History 398 course, History of Women in the American West, consist of research notes, research papers, oral history interviews, transcriptions and abstracts of interviews, releases of literary rights to interviews, and other such documents.

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The materials are arranged in four alphabetical sequences reflecting the four separate accessions. However, some materials had been disrupted from original sequences over time, and consequently some interfiling was done at the Libraries.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Washington State University Libraries Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections  © 2011

Terrell Library

P.O. Box 645610

Pullman, WA, 99164-5610 USA


Restrictions on Access

This collection is open and available for research use.

Restrictions on Use

Copyright restrictions may apply.

Acquisition Information

Oral histories, student reports and associated papers emanating from classes in Women's History (History 398) presented by Prof. Susan Armitage of the Washington State University History Department were transferred to the Washington State University Libraries on several occasions. These were combined into the present arrangement by amalgamation of several dispersed sequences (CT-4, CT-15, UA82-13, and MS86-31) in order to bring related materials into one unit. The arrangement was completed in October 1987 by Lawrence Stark. The collection was redescribed from October 2010 to April 2011 by History student Sarita Wescott with University Archivist Mark O'English. That redescription of this collection, as well as digitization of audio materials for preservation purposes, was funded through a National Endowment for the Humanities “We the People” grant for Washington Women’s History to the Washington Women’s History Consortium, a part of the Washington State Historical Society.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Lawrence Stark, Sarita Wescott and Mark O'English.

Alternative Form Available

Most of the oral histories from History 398 (Women in the West) from 1979-2005 are available online in the Women in the West Oral History Digital Collection.

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Related Materials

Related Material

Washington State University History History 398 (Women in the West) Oral Histories, Student Papers, etc., 1979-2004 (Archives 220)

Washington State University History History 398 (History of Women in the American West) Student Projects, 1996-2005 (Archives 262)

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Names and Subjects

Corporate Name(s)

Subject(s) :
  • Washington State University. Department of History -- Records and correspondence.
  • Washington State University. Department of History. History 398, History of Women in the American West -- Records and correspondence.


  • Women -- West (U.S.) -- History -- Archives.
  • Women's studies -- Washington (State) -- Pullman -- Archives.
  • Women
  • Washington (State)

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Detailed Description of Collection

box folder

Anderson, Enga. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form) and summary by Brenda Olason, 1982. Born 1896; lived in Spokane, Washington; Colville, Washington. Childhood work on family farm, ranch and South Fork Grange #220. Worked in the school district and post office as a clerk. Discusses Norwegian heritage. 

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Arper, Ada. Interview (audiocassette, consent form with no active restrictions), paper and summary by Joy Jensen, 1982. Born in 1896; lived in Roslyn, Washington; Roy, Washington; Tacoma, Washington. Childhood: remembers the family coal mine and store. Attended school and became a substitute teacher. Discussed the care of her four children, her elderly parents, and in-laws. 

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Baird, Lenna. Paper by Cindy Sturgill with sketch of American Red Cross Uniform, 1982. Born ca 1898. Lived in Spokane, Washington. She was a captain in the Spokane American Red Cross during World War I, where she organized pen pals, organized Christmas celebrations for soldiers, and provided returning soldiers greetings. 

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Boyd, Ester. Interview (no audiocassette; consent form with no active restrictions), summary, and paper by Susan A. Smith, 1981. Born ca 1890-1900; lived in Yakima, Washington. She owned a hardware store and discussed her friendship with the Japanese of the Yakima community pre-World War II. She was entrusted with family possessions of the incarcerated Japanese. She spoke at the Tolan Committee hearings in Seattle and Portland on behalf of the Japanese community. 

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Branscom, Sara (Sally) Aquila Umphfries. Paper by Sally Branscom, 1982. Lived in Pomeroy, Washington. Mansfield, Washington. Wenatchee, Washington. Remembers childhood in Pomeroy on the family farm; worked as a harvest cook and harvester. Moved to Mansfield with husband and taught herself to drive a Ford car. Founder of the "Pink Ladies Group," and belonged to various community organizations in Mansfeild and Wenatchee. 

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Cooke, Susan. Paper by Danette Ward, 1982. From diary (not included), not from oral history. 

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Cucuzzi, Beatrice. Paper by Diane Ballasiotes, ca.1982. Born 1890; lived in Palemo, Italy; Rochester, New York. Discussed childhood in Italy, shopping for food and family dinners. Moved to New York with her husband to the Italian district. After her husband died, she worked in a sweat shop to support her seven children. 

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Dreamer, Marion Billbrough. Paper by Heidi Hawkins and photocopy of photographs, 1982. Born 1896. Lived in Detroit, Michigan; Pullman, Washington; Oglala Sioux Indian Reservation, South Dakota; Shepherd, Michigan. Graduated from Washington State University in 1932, BA in Zoology. Teacher for Pine Ridge Day School. Worked for the Oglala Indian Council, Job Corps in Washington and for Mr. Korczak Zilkowski taking care of his 10 children. Worked on the Crazy Horse Project. 

1 8

Flechsig, Gertrude Anna Freida Hedwig Schickendanstz. Paper by Valerie Griffith, 1981. Born 1895; lived in Mecklenburg, Germany; Edmonton, Canada; Simpson, Montana; Lewiston, Montana. Discussed childhood, schooling and being a private secretary in Germany. Traveled to Canada in 1921 to live with brother until she gained American citizenship with her husband. Lived on a farm in Montana with husband and children. Discussed learning how to cook, community get-togethers, and the Depression. 

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Foote, Mary Hallock. Papers by Monique Orns, 1979 (10a) and Judy Mladines, 1982 (10b). Born 1847; lived in Milton, New York; New Almaden, California; Leadville, Colorado; Boise, Idaho; Hingham, Massachusetts. Attended school at Poughkeepsie Female Collegiate Seminary and Woman's School of Design at Copper Union. Studied black and white commercial illustration and learned woodcut illustration. Wrote books about her experiences in the real American "West". She was an art juror at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and was elected to the National Academy of Women Painters and Sculptors. She was the director of Childrens Hospital at San Francisco. 

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Gaffikin, Anne Jezek. Paper by Kathryn Gaffikin, 1982. Born 1902; lived in Tacoma, Washington. Discussed childhood of schooling, chores, potlucks, and trips to the Puyallup fair. Discussed the proper behavior of young women including virtues, courtship, household chores and marriage. During the Depression she went to work in a furniture store but mostly the family relied on welfare and ration stamps. 

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Hatton, May Arkwright. Paper by Nancy Tederman, 1981. Born 1860; lived in Mohoning County, Ohio; Couer d'Alene, Idaho; Wallace, Idaho; Spokane, Washington. Moved to Couer d' Alene working as a cook and took in boarders. Took an interest in unions, married Levi Hutton, and bought two shares in the Hercules Mine. Wrote a book, "A Tale of the Modern Inquisition in Idaho". Joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Moved to Spokane and helped in many organizations and founded many others. In 1908 she ran for state legislature. First woman jury foreman in Washington state. Elected to be a delegate at the Democratic National Convention. 

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James, Florida Virginia Hill (Floy). Paper by Cindy Brittain, 1981. Born 1898. Lived in Colfax, Washington; La Verne, California; Hermosa Beach, California. She spent her childhood on her family wheat farm in the Palouse area. Well off and could afford many luxuries. Many illnesses in her life including Spanish influenza, an appendectomy, and blood poisoning. She was well educated at University of Oregon but graduated from University of Southern California and returned later to get a teachers certificate, taught in La Verne. Married and moved back to Colfax became a housewife. She discusses the negative aspects of the labor-intensive housework, taking care of the children and husband. 

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Jenne, Mary Binghamton. Papers by Karie Bashaw, 1982 (14a) and Loree Wagner, 1981 (14b). Born 1856. Lived in San Francisco, California; Coupeville, Washington; Los Angeles, California; Pullman, Washington. Became a teacher at age 15 and then Assistant Principal at age 21; taught throughout her full life. Was a wife, mother, teacher, officer of the State Teacher Association, and County Superintendent of Schools. 

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Kirkwood, Mary and Nicole Braux Taflinger. Paper by Dodie Murphy Wagner with images, 1981. Mary Kirkwood was born in 1904 and lived in Hillsboro, Oregon; Missoula, Montana; Eugene, Oregon; Moscow, Idaho. Bachelors in Fine Arts from University of Montana in 1929, Masters degree of Fine Arts from University of Oregon in 1930. Went to work for the University of Idaho as a regular Fine Arts teacher; she covered many subjects but did not receive a raise for over 10 years. Teaching took up most of her time so she did not paint a lot. Given a scholarship to Harvard University summer school for art history. IBM corporation chose one of her pieces for their permanent collection of American art. Noticed the social norms of World War II in which women hid their intelligence while in the class room. Had to retire in 1970 because a rule of only 65 years of teaching. Nicole Branx Taflinger was born in 1927. Lived in Vosges, France; Chicago, Illinois; Pullman, Washington. Early exposure to art as a child in France through family, school and museums. Married Air Force pilot, moved to America and started taking night classes at Chicago Art Institute. Moved to Pullman, formed the Thursday Painters until she started taking classes at Washington University. Shared household and childcare duties with husband. Began selling work at the student auctions from $10.00-$100.00 and taught French at the local high school to help with income. Received Bachelors of Fine Arts and Masters of Fine Arts from Washington State University. She opened the NICA Gallery in Pullman which allowed her to become a professional artist. 

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McClung, Nellie. Paper by Monica Dugas, 1981. Born 1873; lived Grey Country Ontario, Canada. Childhood on family farm, educated from age 10 to 16 and attended Collegiate Institute in Winnipeg. Joined the W.C.T.U. (Women's Christian Temperance Union) after marriage to Wesley McClung. Wrote "Sowing Seeds in Danny" ca. 1908. Active role in the women's suffrage movement and participated in the play "The Women's Parliament". Elected legislative assembly of Alberta on the Liberal ticket. Wrote "Painted Faces" in 1925. Appointed by Prime Ministers as part of Canada's delegates to attend the League of Nations in Geneva. 

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Miller, Lucile Sargent. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), paper and summary by Cheryl Willis, 1982. Born 1899. Lived in Molson, Idaho; Tonasket, Idaho. Discusses her childhood education, chores and taking care of her younger siblings. Last year of high school took a job as a telephone operator and meet Harvey Miller, whom she married in 1926. She attended Eastern Washington University and passed the teaching exam and continued her education at Western Washington University where she graduated in 1923. Was a teacher until Harvey died, then started running family store and finances. 

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Mourning Dove. Paper by Barbara Watanabe and photocopy of a photo, 1982. Born 1888. Lived in Ward, Washington; Fort Shaw, Montana; Calgary, Alberta; Fairview, British Columbia; Omak, Washington. Discusses early childhood and education as a half-Salish Indian and half-white. Attended Calgary Business College in Alberta and kept journals; she based her first book, "Cogewea," on them, in 1928. Corresponded with JP McLean and LV McWhorther who help her become published. Contracted pneumonia and inflammation of arthritis that affected her whole life. Active with problems of her people (Salish and other Native Indians). Wrote "Coyote Stories" and became a expert in different dialects and legends of her people. Appointed to the Colville tribal council. 

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Nelson, Amanda Wimpy. Paper by Jeff Stiverson, 1981. Born 1870. Lived in Carthage, Missouri; Hangman's Creek (near Latah), Idaho; Clarkston, Washington. Paper encompasses Amanda Wimpy, Mary Ann Anderson Wimpy (Amanda's Mother) and other Wimpy Women and their experiences traveling to and in Washington Territory as pioneer women. 

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Saunders, Elizabeth Dora Marion. Paper by Deborah Linquist, 1981. Born 1916. Lived in Spokane County, Washington; Olympia, Washington. Discusses childhood on wheat farm, siblings births, taking care of younger siblings, somewhat livable housing as a rent farmer, and living far from a doctor. Attended Big Flat School to 8th grade, Liberty School and Fairfield High School; graduated in 1933. Worked as stenographer earning $25.00 a day. Wrote three books: "The Day Will Come," 1939, "Ellen Spring," 1941 and "The Keys to the House," 1944. Copy reader for Spokane Spokesman-Review. Victim of a mugging in 1975 that resulted in loss of memory, sense of taste and smell. 

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Stirling, Kathryn Norton. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions) and summary by Brenda Stirling Olason, 1982. Date of Birth uncertain. Lived in Saskatchewan, Canada; Kettle Falls, Washington. Discusses childhood with 12 children on a ranch/farm, playing, chores, water conservation, hired work men (Chinese cook) and convent boarding school during the younger years of her life. Discusses early marriage during the Depression: canning, cooking, vegetable gardens, keeping a spotless house and making handmade clothes. Discussed childbirth of her children, sex education and religion. 

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Tannatt, Elizabeth Tappen. Paper By Cathy Preston, 1982. Born 1837. Lived in Manchester, Massachusetts; Boston, Massachusetts; Walla Walla, Washington; Farmington, Washington; Spokane, Washington. Cultured childhood of a wealthy family and attended Charleston Female Academy in Boston. Married Thomas Redding Tannatt (Brigadier General) and followed him around during the Civil War. Joined the Daughters of the American Revolution elected historian and wrote the book "Indian Battles in the Inland Empire" in 1858 for the Spokane chapter. Wrote "Battle of Four Lakes" and "Battle between Four Lakes and Spokane Falls." 

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Webster, Emma Lou. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions) and short paragraph by Susan Jackett, 1981. Date of Birth uncertain. Lived in Puyallup, Washington; Pullman, Washington. Discusses childhood on a berry farm working with family, and picking, cleaning, cutting down bushes and clearing the area. Grew raspberries, blackberries and loganberries. Worked at Western Washington Fair. Discusses the importance of being with family, going to church, playing card games, going to the Grange hall for community activities, and the family car. Went to school at Washington State College. 

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Williams, Kate Roberts. Papers by Geralyn M. Wason, 1982 (24a) and Karen Thrailkill (24b). Born 1867. Lived in Northwestern Ohio; Big Bend, Washington; Coulee City, Washington; Hartline, Washington; Winlock, Washington. Childhood on family farm in Ohio; she details crops, chore of changing bedding, and growing a passion for reading. She became a teacher and moved to the Washington territory as a single woman in 1889. Built her own house of vertical boards with 12'x14' shingled roof; traveled by pony. Married Bob Roberts, had three children; eventually reverted back to her maiden name, Williams. Son killed in World War I; she traveled to France on the Gold Star Mother trip to visit her son's grave. Was President of Ladies Aid, Sunday school superintendent, and was a teacher for her whole life. 

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Bofus, Bessie. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), summary and paper by Patricia E. Graisy, 1980. Born ca.1900-1910. lived Edwall, Washington; Moscow, Idaho; Pullman, Washington. Discussed childhood and family life on the farm including chores, schooling, gender roles and activities. Discussed World War I and World War II verbal abuse for having German heritage; the Great Depression on the farm; and self sufficiency. Discussed the work she has done over her life including farmer, florist, bakery, grocer and art gallery worker while never feeling like she did not have equal rights as men. Discusses the organizations she belonged to. First women Commissioner of Pullman, Past Worthy Matron of the Eastern Star, President of Business and Professional Women. 

2 25

Boulanger, Florence. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), summary and paper by Casey Burgess, 1980. Born 1907. Lived Amherst, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Portland, Oregon. Hanson, Massachusetts; Pullman, Washington. Discusses early childhood with twin sister (Elizabeth Sears Ferris) on a farm in a hilltop community by Amherst College, where her father was an agricultural professor. Obtained a BA and later a Masters in Psychiatric Social Work, went to work at the Juvenile Research Lab in Chicago. A four year visit to sister in Oregon; took classes in color design, was a weaver's apprentice in California and created neckties for men. Returned to Hanson and obtained a teaching certificate, later became a housemother in a sorority at Washington State University. 

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Ferris, Elizabeth Sears. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), summary and paper by Opal M. Saxton, 1980. Born 1907. Lived Amherst, Massachusetts; Boston, Massachusetts; Lawrence, Kansas; New York, New York; Watertown, Massachusetts; Portland, Oregon; Pullman, Washington. Discusses early childhood with twin sister (Florence Sears Boulanger) on a farm in a hilltop community by Amherst College where father was an agricultural professor with a privileged life. BA in sociology, Masters in Economics and member of the economics club. Married, had three children, moved to Oregon to be a housewife but was active in the community theater company. After husband died she became a secretary, then a subscription manager, later head resident at Lewis and Clark College and head resident at Washington State University's Regents Hill. House mother to Kappa Delta sorority at Washington State University. 

2 27

Glunk, Ruth. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), summary, and paper by Marcella Griffin, 1980. Born ca. 1900-1910. Lived in Pullman, Washington. Discusses childhood on the family wheat farm, and their big vegetable garden, orchard and milk cows. Early education was in a county single room school until the 8th grade but did not finish high school. Chores on the farm were very gender restricted with girls washing, cleaning, cooking while the boys helped with the farm work, but milking cows was a chore for both. Discusses her brothers' lives and what they did. The wheat farm was sold during the depression. Discusses her marriage, Sunday drives with her family, her husband's family, her daughter, grandchildren and great grandchildren. 

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McKarcher, Lydia. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), summary, and paper by Somoa S. Samoan, 1980. Born 1922. Lived Belmont, New York; Colfax, Washington; Pullman, Washington. Discusses her parents' life in Russia, immigration to America, and migration to Washington State. Early education included staying after school for help from teacher; later attended business college in Spokane. Talks about the food her family preserved by pickling, making jam, milling flour and making yeast. She worked in a large store in Pullman where she met her husband; they opened a gas station and built a house together. 

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Newton, Hazel. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form), summary, and paper by Karen Nellermoe, 1979. Born 1902. Lived in Montana; Moscow, Idaho. Discusses rural life on a farm as a child and later as a mother. Domestic chores and farm chores, before and during the Depression, included canning fruits and vegetables, laundry, making clothing, and making butter and cream. Discusses family importance throughout her life as a daughter, wife, mother and grandmother. 

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Patterson, Bertha. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form), summary and paper by Vicki R. Ashby, 1979. Born 1892. Lived in Tennessee; Spokane, Washington; Colfax, Washington; Pullman, Washington. Childhood on a wheat farm and education was through high school; she helped others by teaching classes after school. Father died at 13, family moved to Spokane and then Colfax. Discusses her mother taking on the "burden" to support the family, plus Bertha's being a housewife and homebirths for both of her children. She worked at Washington State University in the Agricultural Extension office as a statistical worker, earning $580.00 per month. Learned how to drive a car and did a lot of community service and charitable work. 

3 31

Ringwood, Katherine. Interview (audiocassette and consent form with no restrictions), summary and paper by Irene Ringwood, 1980. Born in 1896. Lived in Sprague, Washington; Spokane, Washington. Raised on a farm and educated in a country school. Married Edward Ringwood in 1917; had five children but lost two during the winter of 1929 when measles took them, her husband was sick, and she still took care of the remaining three children. Discusses technology and how it helped with farm life, specifically the threshing machine. Family and church were the two important things in her life, and in turn affected the farm. 

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Schmidt, Helen. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form), summary, and paper by Kelly Bowers, 1979. Born ca. 1900-1910. Lived in Douglas County, Washington; Bellingham, Washington; Longview, Washington; Yakima, Washington; Pullman, Washington. Discusses living on a wheat farm wherein the whole family worked and was very self-sufficient. Importance of family and community from play, to cooking, and work. "Gotta work for what you want in life." Worked her way through high school as a housekeeper and college as a teacher. Importance of education throughout her life as both a student and a teacher, worked across Washington State but majority of teaching and as principle was at Adams Elementary School in Pullman. 

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Sevdy, Ruth. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form), summary, and paper by Robert Whitt, 1979. Born 1987. Lived in Glenwood, Washington; Palouse, Washington; Bealer, Idaho; Garfield, Washington; Pullman, Washington; Viola, Idaho. Discusses childhood on a wheat farm and dairy farm working with the family. Domestic work of preserving food by canning meat, vegetables, fruit, making home-remedies that included cough syrup. The process of doing the laundry. Moved around a lot as her husband had to go to where the jobs were at. Talks about the Depression and World War II. 

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VanPool, Virginia B. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form), summary, and paper by Joe Hardenburgh, 1979. Born ca. 1900-1910. Lived in Haven, Kansas; Spokane, Washington; Snake River, Washington; Grangeville, Idaho. Discusses some of her education and working at the Spokane County Courthouse. Met her husband in high school; they were reunited in Spokane and married in 1932. Moved to a ranch out by the Snake River with her husband. Discusses ranch life, the community gatherings of dancing and card games, the cowboys that helped on the ranch, and her own housework and ranch work. "It's a hard country but it was beautiful" 

3 35

Yoder, Wilma Portir. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form), summary, and paper by Layne Woolschlager, 1979. Born 1899. Lived in Pullman, Washington; Walla Walla, Washington; La Grande, Oregon; Lexington, Kentucky. Discusses her mother being a model frontier woman, plus her own childhood and early education. Recruited to go to Washington State University; was a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. Discusses campus life during World War I, flu epidemic, meeting her husband, getting a Masters after her marriage, and being a faculty member wife. Felt like she was an equal partner in her marriage. Had four children; during World War II two sons and her husband enlisted never saw action. Moved to Kentucky for husband's job but she got to work part-time as a teacher of sociology, and then as a full time teacher at Southern Baptist College for 15 years. Retired to Pullman. 

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Barleson, Evelyn. Interview (2 audiocassettes, no consent forms; 1st cassette has soft voices and some static and 2nd cassette is blank), summary and paper by Marilyn K. Sager, 1979. Born 1896. Lived in Pullman, Washington; Lewiston, Idaho. Discusses relatively chore-free childhood with few restrictions, but had to leave high school to start working as a fruit picker. Parents divorced when she was little and her mother worked as a seamstress for farmers. Married in 1916; spent first years of marriage in Montana but crops failed; she moved back to Pullman and her husband divorced her. She worked many jobs including City Clerk for 2 years and Police Matron until retirement. Remarried and lived in Pullman raising her 4 children. Discusses her children's opportunities as compared to her own. 

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Cane, Ana. Interview (audiocassette, no consent form), summary and paper by Cindy Evens, 1979. Born 1894. Lived in Oregon; Pullman, Washington. Discusses hard childhood life in Oregon with strict father. Moved to Pullman after marriage to live on a wheat ranch, always working on chores or cooking. Discussed how the meals were labor intensive: keeping the fire going, cooking, keeping water hot, and cleaning up afterwards took up most of the day. Remembers the fun times with her children on the ranch; describes her husband as a considerate man with whom she held equal standing in their marriage. 

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Ferguson, Neva. Interview (audiocassette, no consent form), summary and paper by Kari Buringrud, 1979. Born in 1912. Lived in Illinois; Indiana; Pocatello, Idaho; Pullman, Washington. Discusses childhood farm, raising food, making food from scratch, and hunting, specifying the hard work and strong family values. Family had to move off farm to town after father died. Neva worked hard to help provided for the family; took a job cleaning for an old couple and had a rigid cleaning schedule. Married at 19 and had six children, had to move west after contracting lung disease from working in a radio factory. Worked in a restaurant, picking fruit and vegetables; spent any extra time taking care of her children. Remarried after first husband died, moved to Pullman and worked at WSU in many cooking jobs. Active in the Rebecca lodge and still maintains close ties with her family. 

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Hingston, Ellen. Interview (audiocassette, no consent form; side one of tape one is set to double speed), summary and paper by Jean Two, 1979. Born 1899. Lived in Northern Idaho and Spokane, Washington. Discusses farm life before, during and after the Depression wherein her husband worked while the sons took care of the farm chores. Talks about canning and preserving food in smoke house. Discusses their three year-long courting, mainly outings to parks and lakes, and her marriage to her husband. 

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Hinrichs, Marie Elisabeth (Betty). Interview (audiocassette, no consent form), summary, questionnaire, and paper by David Tate, 1979. Includes two photocopied papers written by interviewee: The Keeping Room (April 20, 1971), and Some History of the Yeo and Bryant School Districts, Nos. 52 and 67, 1886-1927 (undated). Born in 1909; lived in Pullman, Washington. Discusses childhood on the farm and working the land, making food, and preserving the food by canning and drying. Married to high school sweetheart; moved to California for a couple years before moving back to a Pullman farm. Had modern conveniences of indoor plumbing, heated house and gas engine washing machine. Discusses college life, and manners and rules as a house mother for WSU sorority. Worked at WSU as a secretary in many departments; wrote for the Evergreen newspaper and for a magazine for her sorority. 

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Merril, Alice Sessions. Interview (audiocassette, no consent form; recording is set to double speed), summary and paper by Ruth H. Mauss, 1979. Born in 1908. Lived in Farmington, Utah; Pullman, Washington. Discusses childhood in Utah with family, her education though high school, and the health epidemics. Married to Thais, gave birth to identical twins. Moved around a lot for Thais' graduate studies and then for his job as Chairman of Horticulture at WSU. Discusses the changes and times of Pullman the town, including the student protests in the 60s on the WSU campus. Was Head Resident of Kruegal-McAllister dormitory and house mother at a WSU sorority. Talks about traveling though out her life, with and without her husband, and being flexible with the changing times. 

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Beckwith, Evelyn May. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Connie Jay Wolff, 1983. Born in 1921. Lived in Los Angeles, California; Penewawa, Washington; Spokane, Washington. Discussed childhood in Los Angeles working in the house, visiting her grandmother, the street vendors who provided food staples, and the conveniences of living in a city. Married in 1940 and moved to a Washington small town with no city conveniences. Gender-segregated work in Los Angeles was easier, while in Washington women did more manual work. Socializing was church and going into town for supplies; she did not feel a connection to small town life and went back to her family to have her baby. 

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Clyde, Lola Gamble. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Myra E. Smart, 1986. Born ca. 1898; lived in Moscow, Idaho. Discussed family life and working for her education as a teacher. Taught all over Idaho until she married, when she became a full time housewife and an active participant with children's activities while living on a farm. Became a member of the Moscow School district and improved the conditions for teachers; she was also State Mother of Future Homemakers of America and helped introduced sex education to schools. 

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Gray, Thelma Simpson. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Linda D. Tate, 1983. Born 1904. Lived Ephrata, Washington; Astoria, Oregon; Pullman, Washington. Discusses family homestead where they kept cows for milking, picked fruit from their orchard to support a study income, and canned and dried as much food as they could. They had no electricity but used oil laps. Attended school in another town, then attended Eastern Washington University to obtain her teaching certificate and attended Washington State University in the summer when not teaching. Quite teaching at marriage and became a housewife and raised her children on the family farm; did a lot of canning and preserving of food. She had an equal relationship with her husband in the marriage, child rearing, and decision making. 

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Haynes, Ruby P. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions; poor audio quality for last half of 1st side and all of the 2nd side of cassette) and summary by Elizabeth A. Kleingartner, 1986. Born ca. 1900; lived in Pullman, Washington; Moscow, Idaho; Sandpoint, Idaho. Discussed being raised by her grandparents for the first part of her life and then living with her mother and step-father in logging communities in Idaho. Social activities were centered around the schools. After marriage she moved to a farm where the work was very gender-segregated; she would cook, clean and do housework. Always something to do or work on the farm. 

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Johansen, Ruth Hanson Tennwick. Interview (audiocassette and consent form and active restriction), summary and paper by Mary M. Cassidy, 1983. Born 1900. Lived in Lewiston, Idaho; Kalispell, Montana; Joel, Idaho. Discusses her childhood education, her family, and learning music. Attended bunsiness college and then university for music but had to drop out due to the Depression. Wanted to be an entertainer but postponed to be a farmer and mother. Discussed the hard farm work in the fields, all the housework, and raising children. Husband recalled to Navy for World War II; she worked the farm and made decisions by herself. Her husband came back with mental illness and died 20 years later. Discussed raising her four boys by herself in Moscow and the values she taught them. 

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Knight, Daisy. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Kim M Barnes, 1986. Born 1908; lived Stigler, Oklahoma. Lewiston, Idaho. Pierce, Idaho. Discussed growing up in a poor family that had to work hard; she wanted a better life and left to find a job. Meeting her husband, she got married and moved to California to live on a dude ranch but then visited Idaho and never left. Husband worked as a logger and builder of houses; she worked as the camp cook feeding 80-100 lumberjacks a day. She was a very good cook, paid $500 per month along with room and board for family. They adopted a girl, Peggy, from Spokane area because she could not have children. 

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Marshall, Celia Boone. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form and no restrictions), summary and papers by Tarri Rude (49a) and John Campbell (49b), 1983. Born 1902; lived in Pullman, Washington. Recounts her childhood as happy on the family farm which was self-sufficient. Attended a one-room school until the 4th grade, and recounts the changing times of Pullman including the flood of 1910, the first automobile, and electricity. She talks about her domestic chores as a child and in marriage, including laundry, cooking, canning, gardening, milking cows, collecting chicken eggs, and sewing clothing. Automobile accidents killed her eldest daughter in 1949 and then her sister, brother-in-law, and husband were killed in a car accident that she was also in. 

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Marchall, Jane. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Mary Afsharirad, 1983. Born 1902; lived in Pullman, Washington. Raised on a family farm with a big family where everyone helped out. Education was very important to the family, so during school year he moved into town and then back to the farm for the summer. Married after high school and became a farm wife and mother; this was a lot of manual work but enjoyable. Had a self-sufficient farm to feed the family through raising cows, chickens, a garden, preserving food, and butchering their own food. Did all the domestic work from cooking to laundry, sewing, and quilting; it was practical but enjoyable. Family and social activities were very important to the community. 

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Moate, Hazel Collins. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Karen Ellis, 1983. Born 1901; lived in Yakima, Washington. Discusses her childhood in Yakima with her father, step-mother and step-sisters wherein she shared chores that included gardening, canning, taking care of the chickens, and splitting wood. Had no refrigeration, a root cellar was used to keep food cold, including potatoes, carrots and canned food. Discusses the entertainment in Yakima as a child and adult: circuses, swimming in the irrigation ditches, Sunday buggy rides, and going to the grocery store. Married young and had six biological children, one of which drowned. She adopted a little boy later in life. Discuuses importance of social clubs and child-rearing to life in the west. 

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Strait, Freda H. Interview (audiocassette with consent form; side two of tape is blank), paper by Denis Montry, 1986. Born 1911; lived Waitsburg, Washington; Pullman, Washington; Colorado and Nevada. Freda briefly describes her early childhood on the family farm, but spends the majority of the time talking about her and her husband's experiences teaching on Native American reservations in Colorado, Arizona, and Nevada. She talks about the damaging effects of sand storms on ranching communities and describes the structure of the Indian Education system. She describes her experiences living on a reservation and talks about the isolation of it. She and her family eventually settled in Pullman, Washington, where she retired after seventeen years working in the Washington State University libraries. 

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Vougel, Bertha J. Berkman. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), paper by Sarabeth Field, 1983. Born 1904. Lived in Pullman, Washington; Lincoln, Nebraska. She discusses her education, receiving a college degree in musical education and art. She worked as a teacher for 3 years teaching 500 students music and art lessons. Discusses the early courtship when she met her husband, including watching silent films, playing cards, and dancing, all of which were against her father's religion. Moved to Pullman for her husband's job, they had two children which she devoted as much time as she could to. Her family was very much involved in community activates, social events, church, supporting the Farmhouse fraternity, and the Sigma Alpha Iota musical fraternity. 

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Walker, Catherine. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form and no restrictions), paper by Janice Wall, 1983. Born 1902. Lived in Clarkston, Washington; Lewiston, Idaho; Palouse, Washington. Discusses childhood, moving around for her father's health between Palouse and Clarkston until his death. She finished high school and Normal School in Lewiston for teaching, and took teaching positions based upon her mother's health. As a rural school teacher she taught many grades and basic curriculum, and was considered strict but fair. She married and gave up teaching for farm life, and talks about the first years of adjustment to learning how to cook, can food and keep a garden. When her husband passed away she kept the farm until her son took over, and then went back to teaching until her retirement in 1964. 

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Westrom, Willimeana "Minnie". Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form and no restrictions), summary and paper by Wende Haserot, 1983. Born 1895. lived in Lakewood, Washington; Tacoma, Washington; Los Angeles, California; Pullman, Washington; New Jersey. Early childhood was pleasant, moving between the east and west coasts with her family. She discusses the different schooling she had on each coast. After completing schooling she took over as a surrogate mother to her siblings at age 14; she did all the domestic chores including cooking and cleaning, until she married Sid Westrom. She discusses married life in Washington including having children. She loved being a homemaker and only worked one job, at a bakery in California when her family needed extra money. 

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Wilson, Murrielle. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form and no restrictions) and summary by Mary Jordan, 1986. Born 1913. Lived in Riggins, Idaho; Clarkson, Idaho; Wisconsin. Early childhood memories of working in the family store in Riggins where she helped her father by minding the store; the family lived in the apartment behind the building until her father bought a ranch on the Snake River. After finishing regular school she attended Lewiston Normal for a teaching certificate for both Idaho and Oregon; she taught until she had her children and then substituted until she retired. She married Jimmy Wilson, whom she had known for her whole life. In early marriage she shared a house with her husband, sister-in-law, and sister-in-law's husband. She shares many stories about that aspect of her, life living in the house out on the ranch. 

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Wurgler, Martha. Interview (2 audiocassettes; no consent form), summary, and paper by Gary Blevens, 1982. Born in 1912. Lived in Pullman, Washington; Colville, Washington; Troy, Oregon. Family dairy farm in Pullman with many modern conveniences that included electricity for the house and barn, indoor plumbing, and telephone, all of which benefited the family by reducing time-consuming chores and provided more leisure time. Discusses the importance of hard work and family while growing up with all the opportunities that she has had as a teacher and volunteer for the WAC (Womens Army Corps). 

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Zumhofe, Magdalena Dennler. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and no restrictions), newspaper article clipping, summary, and paper by Janece Heimgartner, 1983. Born 1882. Lived in Germany and Juliaetta, Idaho. She discusses early pioneer life on a farm in the west, and being isolated and self-sufficient on the farm with her family. Discusses all the women's chores she had to do that were very labor intensive and time consuming, including social gatherings. 

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Copies of Releases, superceded inventories, and other related papers. 

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