APA journals use the author-date method of citation.
Surname of the author (not including suffix such as Jr.) and the year of the publication are inserted at the appropriate point.
Elements of a parenthetical reference include the last name of the author, and year the work was published. If quoting directly the page number (page is abbreviated as "p.") or paragraph number is also required.
When directly quoting, APA requires a parenthetical including the three components of author, year, page number (page abbreviated as "p.") [Note: for works that do not use pagination list the paragraph number].
"You may remember me from such hits as Christmas Ape and Christmas Ape Goes to Summer Camp" (McClure, 1998, p.352).
Example:Article or Chapter in an Edited or Reference Book
Simpson, A., & Burns, M. (Eds.). (1989). The flying hellfish. Cypress Creek, SD: Globex Press.
Simpson, C., & Lumpkin, L. (1989). Country singin' ain't for me. In E. Winthrop (Ed.), Traveling Country
(pp. 352-358). Washington, DC: Country Press.
Example:Electronic Book chapter
Wiggum, C. (1993). Big Daddy in the Big Easy. Retrieved from
Example:Article or Chapter in an Edited or Reference Electronic Book
Frink, J. (2007). The flying motorcycle. In C.M. Burns (Ed.), Nuclear powered Vehicles of tomorrow
(pp.352 - 420). Retrieved from http://www.nuclearebooks.com/frink/NPVT.html.
Terwilliger, R. & Terwilliger, C. (1997). 'Dam' the hydroelectric blow up. In M. Szyslak (Ed.), 101 ways to kill Bart Simpson. Retrieved from http:www.simpsonsdirect.com/reference/02231997
Example with doi:
Simpson, M. (2009). Innovations in applications of salt and other pretzel toppings. In F. Ormand
Ed.),Proceedings of the 34th International Symposium on Stadium Food (pp. 12- 23). Vancouver,
British Columbia: Fallout Press.
Example without doi:
Van Houten, N., & Flanders, R. (1975). Nachos Flanders style. In H. Krustofski (Ed.), Proceedings of the
Fourth International Symposium on Stadium Food (pp. 123-157). Vancouver, British Columbia:
McAllister, C., & Nahasapeemapetilon, S. (1991). Robbed again: returning to work after being held up. Journal of Kwiki Management, 22(3), 17-29.
Duff, E. (1993, May 4). Dealing with a surly brewer. Brewers Magazine, 32, 35-38.
Ziff, A. (1990, February 18). Bigfoot still at large. National Informer, pp. A1, A3.
Example:Online Journal Article without a doi
Stevens, M., & Stewart, M. (2000). Life on the run. On the Lamb Quarterly, 28, 220-247.
Example:Online Magazine article
Bouvier, S., & Monroe, M. (1998). Shocking: the therapy used today. Psychology Journal, 18(1), 22-25.
Retrieved from http://psychjourn.com/
Example:Online Book Review
Nahasapeemipetilon, A. (1990, April 22). 357 Magnum the clown stopper. Morning Maker News, p. A1.
Retrieved from http://www.morningmakernews.com
Grimes, F. (1996, October 27). How we wish we knew less of him [Review of the book Homer, I
hardly knew me, by H. J. Simpson]. Nuclear Power-Plants Today, 42 32-33.
Web documents share many of the same elements found in print documents (authors, titles, dates). The reference citation for a Web document often follows a format similar to that for a print document citation.
Second Example has no date listed:
Dempsey, A. (n.d.). Eyelashes: Batem' if you got'em. Retrieved from
Third Example has no Author and no date:
Plastic surgery: knowing when it's the right move for you. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Online Photograph or Image
Springfield Nuclear Power (Producer). (2008). Nuclear Powerplant [Photograph]. Retrieved from
Weblog Post or Comment
Lovejoy, H. (2005, November 11). Marge's hair is unnaturally blue [Video file]. Retrieved from
Mel, S. (Producer). (n.d.). Hair-bones in high style. Krustyland Studios Online. [Audio podcast] Retrieved
Newsgroup, Online Forum, or Discussion Group
Pie, A. (2008, August 20). Re: The Eye in the Sky [Online forum Comment]. Retrieved from
McClure, T. (Director). (1988). "P" is for psycho[DVD]. Available from