Cage 767

Sidney Marks

Papers, 1946-1988

Acquisition And Processing Information

The Sidney Marks papers were donated to the Washington State University libraries in 2006 by Ronald Kathren as part of the Herbert M. Parker Special Library Collections (MS 2006-07). The collection was processed by Lee Ann Powell in 2011.

Extent/Quantity Information

Number of containers: 21

Linear feet of shelf space: 10.5


Sidney Marks was born in Chicago, Illinois on June 28, 1918. He initially trained as a medical doctor with a specialty certification in human pathology. He received his medical degree in 1942 from the University of Illinois and obtained a board certification in pathology in 1947. He worked as a pathologist for the Veterans Administration Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1947 to 1948, and in 1950 he moved to Richland, Washington.

In Richland, he worked both at Kadlec Hospital and at General Electric Hanford's Biology Laboratory. His work at Hanford cultivated a new interest in the effects of low-level radiation exposure and inspired him to further his education. In 1961, he earned a Master of Science degree in physics from the University of Idaho and a Ph.D. in biostatistics at the University of California Los Angeles in 1970.

His dual skills in medicine and biostatistics, along with his keen interest in radiation, led Dr. Marks to a long and productive career with the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA, predecessor of the Department of Energy), and the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

In 1971, after several years in graduate school and an appointment as associate professor at University of Maryland Medical School, Marks joined the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine (later the ERDA). He served as the agency's coordinator of human studies and biostatistics until 1976. While in this position he worked with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), oversaw health physics studies and radiobiology of uranium studies, and was involved in the highly controversial epidemiologic study of Hanford workers commonly known as the Mancuso study.

In 1976, Marks left the ERDA and returned to Richland to accept a position as program manager for epidemiological studies at Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Program. Dr. Marks was instrumental in the creation of the United States Uranium Registry and the development of standard for uranium exposure.

Collection Description

These papers document Sidney Marks's professional activities as a research scientist with a special expertise in the health effects of radiation. The collection includes reports, scientific data, correspondence, printed materials, and literature relating to Marks's professional activities.

Collection Arrangement

The collection is arranged in 5 series reflecting Sidney Marks's original order.


Scientists – Archives

Radiation – Health aspects – Research

Radiation – Dosage – Research

Radiation carcinogenesis – Research

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission


This collection is open and available for research use. Copyright restrictions apply.

Preferred Citation

The suggested citation for the collection is:

[Item Description]

Sidney Marks Papers, 1946-1988

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections

Washington State University Libraries

Pullman, WA


Most materials in the collection are in English, with a few items in German and Japanese.

Container List:

Box Folder Description
    Series 1: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 1940s-1970s
1 1 Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, 1961 and 1962
  2 Program Review, 1962
  3 History of Commission Development, 1963 and 1967
  4 Report on Future of the Commission
  5 Miscellaneous correspondence, 1959-1968
  6-7 Research and Register Protocols, 1964-1973
  8 Administrative Flow Chart, 1968
  9 Commission Reorganization, 1968-1975
  10 National Academy of Sciences Review of Commission, 1975
  11-12 Annual and Semi-Annual Reports, 1950-1955
2 13-16 Annual and Semi-Annual Reports, 1950-1955
  17-18 Annual Reports, 1968-1972
3 19-20 Annual Reports, 1968-1972
  21 Manhattan Engineer District (report on atomic bombings), undated
  22 Report on Hiroshima bombing, undated
  23 Casualties and Damages Report (atomic bombings), 1952
  24 Atomic Energy Commission Reports on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (bombing affects), 1963 and 1966
  25 ABCC Technical Reports (health of atomic bomb survivors), 1954, 1964, 1976-1978, 1982
  26 Naval Reports (Marshall Island and Nagasaki skin burn victims; and yield of Hiroshima weapon), 1955 and 1965
4 27-28 Civil Defense Report (analysis of Japanese casualty data), 1966
  29 Atomic Bomb Survivors in the United States (correspondence and press clippings), 1972 and 1974
  30 Bibliography of Publications Concerning Effect of Nuclear Explosions, 1960 and 1961
  31 Comparison of Skeletal Maturation with Dental Status in Children (article manuscript copy), 1953
  32 Darling, George (correspondence), 1969-1972
  33 Declassified documents on the effects of the Atomic Bombs in Japan (report), 1965
  34 Delayed Consequences of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (symposium articles), 1971
  35 Division of Biology and Medicine (correspondence), 1962-1972
  36 Dunham, Charles (correspondence), 1962 and 1970
  37 Epidemiology of Lung Cancer (article manuscript copy), 1974
  38 Goldstein, Joseph (International Congress of Radiology trip report), 1969
  39-40 Health and Atomic Bomb Survivors (reports and studies), 1962-1986 and undated
5 41 Hiroshima University (bibliography of research papers by science faculty), 1985
  42 Hole, David (correspondence), 1986
  43 Impact of Atomic Energy Industry on Community Health (report), 1955
  44 Japan Trip (trip report by John B. Storer), 1968
  45 Japan Trip (trip report by R.L. Hays), 1971
  46 Japan Trip (schedule, Marks meeting notes, ticket stubs, receipts, reports, press clipping), 1975
  47 Japanese press (English translations of atomic bomb related articles), 1960
  48-49 Japan Science Promotion Society (report), 1953
  50 Kyogikai for the Adult Health Study (meeting minuets), 1963
  51 Kyoto University (brochure), 1956
  52 Radiation Effects Research Foundation (report on cancer mortality in bomb survivors and newsletters), 1982 and 1985
  53 Royal Society of London Explosive Yields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (report), 1970
  54 Typical Japanese dwelling (specifications and design blueprints), 1956
  55 Marshall Islands (correspondence and press clippings), 1974
  56 National Academy of Sciences (budget and correspondence), 1970 and 1972
  57 Problems of Measurement of Aging in the Human Population (report), 1972
6 58 Radioactive Dust from Nuclear Detonation (report), 1954
  59-62 U.S. Strategic Bomb Survey of Physical Damages (report), 1946
  63-64 U.S. Strategic Bomb Survey Heath and Medical Services and Japanese Wartime Standard of Living (reports), 1947
    Series 2: Conference and Symposia Files, 1970s-1980s
  65 Human genetics course materials (University of Washington), 1976
  66 Conference on radiation associated thyroid carcinoma (program), 1976
  67 Department of Energy meeting and workshop on oil shale (press clipping, registration list, and introductory comments by Marks), 1977
  68-69 Symposium on the late biological effects of ionizing radiation (program, correspondence, report 1978
7 70 Heath Physics Society annual meeting (newsletters, programs, abstracts, and notes), 1976 and 1978
  71 Department of Energy statistical symposium (program), 1980
  72 Radon Specialists meeting (notes, abstracts, and correspondence), 1980
  73 Hazards to the fetus course materials (University of Washington), 1980
  74 American College of Nuclear Medicine annual meeting (program, abstracts, and correspondence), 1980
  75 Department of Energy health and mortality studies review meeting (agenda), 1980
  76 Environ Metrics symposium (program and correspondence), 1981 and 1982
  77 Radiation hazards in mining meeting (contact lists and notes), 1981
  78 American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting (program, correspondence, and notes), 1981 and 1982
  79 International symposium on biomedical effects of ozone (program), 1982
  80 Department of Energy radiation epidemiology contractors' workshop (correspondence and presentation), 1982
  81-82 National Council on Radiation (correspondence, reports, annual meeting programs), 1979-1988
8 83 National Council on Radiation (continued)
    Series 3: The Hanford Mortality Study, 1970s-1980
  84 Argonne National Laboratory (mortality study), 1959
  85-89 Mancuso, Thomas F. (correspondence, reports, testimony, presentations, article manuscript copies), 1965, 1970-1984
  90 Project feasibility study, 1966
9 91-92 Retrospective and data acquisition report, 1969
  93-98 Mancuso progress report (numbers 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10), 1970-1974
10 99-100 Mancuso progress reports (numbers 11 and 13), 1975 and 1977
  101-102 Stewart, Alice (correspondence, reports, and article manuscript copies), 1970-1978
  103 Radiation protection standards, 1971
  104 Sanders, Barkev S. (article manuscript copies), 1971 and 1972
  105 Medical Research Council (Robin H. Mole correspondence), 1974-1982
  106 Blot, William J. (letter to Marks), 1975
  107-108 Gilbert, Ethel S. (article manuscript copies), 1975-1985
11 109 National Radiological Protection Board (correspondence, bulletins, press release), 1976-1985
  110-111 Marks, Sidney (article manuscript copies, project status report, press briefings, narrative of his involvement with the project and the Mancuso controversy, and correspondence), 1976-1984
  112 British Nuclear Fuels (Geoff B. Schofield correspondence and obituary) 1976-1985
  113 Milham, Samuel (article manuscript copy and evaluation by Mancuso team), 1976
  114 John Abbotts and the Public Interest Research Group (letter from Battelle and requested documents), 1976
  115-116 Press clippings 1976-1979, 1981, 1985, and undated
  117 Project history, 1977, 1983, and undated
  118 Anderson, Terrence (correspondence and review of Mancuso), 1977 and 1979
  119 Tamplin, Arthur (testimony before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission), 1977
12 120 Brodsky, Allen (article manuscripts copies, correspondence, and testimony before the House Sub-Committee on Health and the Environment), 1977-1979, 1982
  121 Mancuso report critiques, 1977 and 1978
  122 Essays on nuclear power in the Northwest by Evergreen State College students, 1978
  123-124 The Windscale Inquiry Volumes 1 and 2 (British nuclear industry environment and health report), 1978
  125 National Radiation Protection Board review of Mancuso, 1978 and 1979
  126 British Nuclear Fuels (Eddie Clough correspondence and reports), 1978, 1979, 1982-1984
  127 Atomic Energy Research Establishment (A. Norman Stott correspondence), 1978
  128 Leukemia and radiation (reports), 1978 and 1988
  129 Canadian Mortality Study (reports and correspondence), 1979, 1981, 1984
13 130-131 Canadian Mortality Study (continued)
  132-133 Advisory Committee (correspondence and reports), 1980-1985
  134 Culham Laboratory (William M. Lomer correspondence), 1980 and 1986
  135 United Kingdom Energy Authority (correspondence and reports on the United Kingdom Atomic Energy mortality study) 1980-1986
  136 Federal Radiation Research Activities House Subcommittee hearing testimony (Robert Alvarez, William Harpin, George Hutchinson, and Seymour Jablon), 1982
  137 Radiation and life expectancy, 1957, 1982, 1983
  138 Presentations on radiation, 1983
  139 Peer review, 1983
14 140 Energy-Related Health Research annual report, 1983
  141 Briefings and memoranda, 1984
  142 Radiostrontium report, 1984
  143 Three Mile Island (review of dose estimates), 1984
  144 Risk assessment briefing, 1985
  145 Alvarez, Robert (Alvarez report and comments by Marks), 1985 and 1986
  146 British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant (mortality study), 1982
  147 Petersen, Gerald (correspondence), 1986
  148 Epidemiology presentation, 1988
  149 Human health studies presentation, undated
  150 Animal radiation studies (Marks and others), undated
  152 Atomic Industrial Forum critique of Mancuso, undated
  153-154 Mortality study literature (index, abstracts, and articles resulting from or about the study), 1976-1982
15 155-156 Mortality study literature (continued)
  157 Slides and index 1976, 1980, 1982-1984
  158 Miscellaneous, 1963 and undated
    Series 4: Assurance Program for Remedial Action Project, 1980
  159 Utah State Department of Health (correspondence with Marks and others), 1979-1984
  160 Project files (distribution lists, memos, field task proposals and agreements, resumes, property reports, literature bibliography), 1981-1984
  161-164 Salt Lake City (radon screening results, seasonal radon levels, remedial action priorities, floor plans and maps), 1981, 1982, and undated
16 165-168 Salt Lake City (projected excess cancer rates and health effects estimations for properties), 1983 and undated
  169 Uranium mines emission standards, 1982 and 1985
  170 Durango (health effects estimation for properties), 1983
  171 Radon in mill tailings presentation, 1983
  172 Description of procedures used in estimating health effects, 1983
  173 Estimation of daily food consumption (letter and report), 1983 and 1984
  174 Health effects of radon in mill tailings (correspondence and literature related to Marks's review article), 1984
  175 Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation presentation, 1984
17 176 Risk assessment for remedial action, 1985
  177 Indoor air quality research strategy, 1985
  178 United Nations risk assessment of radiation, 1986
  179 Statistical methods for assessing environmental carcinogens risk, undated
  180 Uranium industry statistics and papers (microfiche), 1976, 1977, 1983
    Series 5: Subject Files, 1960-1980s
  181 Andreas, George (correspondence), 1982
  182 Brazilian regions of high natural radioactivity (article manuscript copies), 1963
  183 Bertell, Rosalie (article manuscript copy), 1976-1978, and 1985
  184 Bertell and Bross (correspondence), 1972-1976
  185 Biomedical and environmental research chronology, 1973
  186 Bross, Irwin D.J. (article manuscript copy), 1976
  187-188 Canada (health studies of uranium miners and atomic workers), 1983-1985, and 1987
  189 Colorado Energy Research Institute (letter), 1983
18 190 Energy production (comparative risks analysis), undated
  191 Hanford (press clippings and photographs), 1979 and 1985
  192 Fallout (map and literature), 1955 and 1968
  193 General Electric (corporate research and development), 1981
  194 Glossary of radiation terms, undated
  195 India (natural high levels of radiation), 1956-1973 and undated
  196 Indoor air quality (literature), 1987
  197 Ionizing radiation (literature), 1956, 1961, and undated
  198 Kathren, Ronald (radiation and health physics presentation), 1986 and undated
  199 Lilienfeld paper (Marks's notes), undated
  200 Los Alamos (AEC study of plutonium workers), 1973
  201 Low level radiation (literature), 1979, 1980, and undated
19 202 Lung dosimetry (literature), 1964-1985 and undated
  203 Lyon, J. Lyn (Marks review of leukemia study), 1978 and 1979
  204 Meyer, Mary (critique of paper), 1970
  205 National Council on Radiation Protection (comments on Federal Register), 1980
  206 Natural radiation and health, (literature) 1979
  207 New Mexico uranium miners (literature), 1978 and undated
  208 Nonmalignant respiratory diseases in miners (literature), undated
  209 Niue Island (map, geological survey, and correspondence) 1959
  210 Oak Ridge Associated Universities (newsletter), 1983
  211 Pacific Northwest Laboratory (correspondence and reports), 1982-1986
  212 Pre-natal radiation (literature), 1973 and 1974
  213 Press clippings (radiation and human health), 1981-1986
  214 Radiation health risks (literature), 1982, 1983, and 1984
  215 Radon (conference papers, literature, Germany, human health risk, inside dwellings, and miscellaneous), 1973-1988 and undated
20 216-224 Radon (continued)
  225 Risk analysis and energy sources (speech, literature, and presentation outline), 1979, 1984, 1985, and undated
  226 Risks associated with nuclear power (National Academy of Science report), 1979
  227 Shale oil (presentation outline), undated
  228 Sharpe, William (article manuscript copies), undated
  229 South Africa (lung cancer in miners), 1971 and 1980
  230 Testicular function and radiation (literature), 1974
  231 Unidentified photograph [Marks and others?], undated
  232 United Nation Scientific Committee on Effects of Radiation (reports), 1977-1981
  233-234 Uranium miners and radiation (literature) 1969, 1978, 1984
  253 Uranium miner regression study, 1976