Guide to the Sidney Marks Papers 1946-1988
Cage 767

Summary Information

Repository
Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries
Creator
Marks, Sydney
Title
Sidney Marks Papers
ID
Cage 767
Date [inclusive]
1946-1988
Extent
21.0 boxes
General Physical Description note
10.5 Linear feet of shelf space
Language
English
Abstract
These papers document Sidney Marks's professional activities as a research scientist with a special expertise in the health effects of radiation.

Preferred Citation note

[Item Description] Sidney Marks Papers, 1946-1988

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA.

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Biographical/Historical note

Sidney Marks was born in Chicago, Illinois on June 28, 1918. He initially trained as a medical doctor with a specialty certification in human pathology. He received his medical degree in 1942 from the University of Illinois and obtained a board certification in pathology in 1947. He worked as a pathologist for the Veterans Administration Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1947 to 1948, and in 1950 he moved to Richland, Washington.

In Richland, he worked both at Kadlec Hospital and at General Electric Hanford's Biology Laboratory. His work at Hanford cultivated a new interest in the effects of low-level radiation exposure and inspired him to further his education. In 1961, he earned a Master of Science degree in physics from the University of Idaho and a Ph.D. in biostatistics at the University of California Los Angeles in 1970.

His dual skills in medicine and biostatistics, along with his keen interest in radiation, led Dr. Marks to a long and productive career with the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA, predecessor of the Department of Energy), and the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

In 1971, after several years in graduate school and an appointment as associate professor at University of Maryland Medical School, Marks joined the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine (later the ERDA). He served as the agency's coordinator of human studies and biostatistics until 1976. While in this position he worked with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), oversaw health physics studies and radiobiology of uranium studies, and was involved in the highly controversial epidemiologic study of Hanford workers commonly known as the Mancuso study.

In 1976, Marks left the ERDA and returned to Richland to accept a position as program manager for epidemiological studies at Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Program. Dr. Marks was instrumental in the creation of the United States Uranium Registry and the development of standard for uranium exposure.

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Scope and Contents note

These papers document Sidney Marks's professional activities as a research scientist with a special expertise in the health effects of radiation. The collection includes reports, scientific data, correspondence, printed materials, and literature relating to Marks's professional activities.

Series 1: The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), 1940s-1970s -- This series includes reports, correspondence, and documents related to Dr. Marks's trip to Japan as part of the ABCC.

Series 2: The Conference and Symposia files, 1970s-1980s -- This series contains correspondence, programs, meeting notes, and papers from the conferences, symposia, and courses attended by Dr. Marks. These include the Heath Physics Society annual meeting, the National Council on Radiation, Department of Energy meetings and workshops, and the American College of Nuclear Medicine.

Series 3: The Hanford Mortality Study, 1970s-1980 -- This series documents Dr. Marks's deep involvement in the controversy that erupted over the study, primarily conducted by Dr. Thomas F. Mancuso. Dr. Mancuso was an epidemiologist contracted by the AEC in 1965 to study the long-term effects of low dose radiation exposure in nuclear bomb workers. In the mid-1970s, Mancuso's contract with the AEC was terminated. His termination led to much controversy within the nuclear community, among radiation scholars, and in popular press. Dr. Marks was Mancuso's AEC supervisor and took over the study after Mancuso was fired. The collection includes correspondence, Congressional testimony, drafts of the study, documentation of related research, and much of the literature surrounding the controversy and results of the Hanford Mortality Study.

Series 4: The Assurance Program for Remedial Action Project (APRA), 1980 -- This series includes a description of the project, correspondence, and reports. Marks served as one of the principal investigators for this project. Conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Battelle Memorial Institute, the purpose of this project was to provide technical support and assistance to the Department of Energy's Office of Operation Safety in implementing its Assurance Program for Remedial Action. Marks and his associates provided review, technical support and advice to the Operational Safety staff in developing the procedural and technical content of the APRA, including Quality Assurance reviews and appraisals, radiological dose criteria evaluations and recommendations, and risk assessment reviews and appraisals.

Series 5: Subject files, 1960-1980s -- Much of the material in the Subject Files series consists of literature dedicated to Dr. Marks's professional interest in the health effects of long term low dose radiation exposure both natural and manmade and the controversies surrounding this highly debated issue.

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Arrangement note

The collection is arranged in 5 series reflecting Sidney Marks's original order.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries © 2016

http://www.libraries.wsu.edu/masc
Terrell Library
P.O. Box 645610
Pullman, WA, 99164-5610
509-335-6691
mascref@wsu.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

This collection is open and available for research use.

Conditions Governing Use note

Copyright restrictions apply.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

The Sidney Marks papers were donated to the Washington State University libraries in 2006 by Ronald Kathren as part of the Herbert M. Parker Special Library Collections (MS 2006-07).

Processing Information note

This collection was processed by Lee Ann Powell in 2011.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.
  • U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Personal Name(s)

  • Marks, Sidney -- Archives

Subject(s)

  • Radiation -- Dosage -- Research.
  • Radiation -- Health aspects -- Research.
  • Radiation carcinogenesis -- Research.
  • Science
  • Scientists -- Archives.

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Collection Inventory

Series 1: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 1940s-1970s 

Box Folder

Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, 1961 and 1962 

1 1

Program Review, 1962 

1 2

History of Commission Development, 1963 and 1967 

1 3

Report on Future of the Commission 

1 4

Miscellaneous correspondence, 1959-1968 

1 5

Research and Register Protocols, 1964-1973 

1 6-7

Administrative Flow Chart, 1968 

1 8

Commission Reorganization, 1968-1975 

1 9

National Academy of Sciences Review of Commission, 1975 

1 10

Annual and Semi-Annual Reports, 1950-1955 

1 11-12

Annual and Semi-Annual Reports, 1950-1955 

2 13-16

Annual Reports, 1968-1972 

2 17-18

Annual Reports, 1968-1972 

3 19-20

Manhattan Engineer District (report on atomic bombings), undated 

3 21

Report on Hiroshima bombing, undated 

3 22

Casualties and Damages Report (atomic bombings), 1952 

3 23

Atomic Energy Commission Reports on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (bombing affects), 1963 and 1966 

3 24

ABCC Technical Reports (health of atomic bomb survivors), 1954, 1964, 1976-1978, 1982 

3 25

Naval Reports (Marshall Island and Nagasaki skin burn victims; and yield of Hiroshima weapon), 1955 and 1965 

3 26

Civil Defense Report (analysis of Japanese casualty data), 1966 

4 27-28

Atomic Bomb Survivors in the United States (correspondence and press clippings), 1972 and 1974 

4 29

Bibliography of Publications Concerning Effect of Nuclear Explosions, 1960 and 1961 

4 30

Comparison of Skeletal Maturation with Dental Status in Children (article manuscript copy), 1953 

4 31

Darling, George (correspondence), 1969-1972 

4 32

Declassified documents on the effects of the Atomic Bombs in Japan (report), 1965 

4 33

Delayed Consequences of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (symposium articles), 1971 

4 34

Division of Biology and Medicine (correspondence), 1962-1972 

4 35

Dunham, Charles (correspondence), 1962 and 1970 

4 36

Epidemiology of Lung Cancer (article manuscript copy), 1974 

4 37

Goldstein, Joseph (International Congress of Radiology trip report), 1969 

4 38

Health and Atomic Bomb Survivors (reports and studies), 1962-1986 and undated 

4 39-40

Hiroshima University (bibliography of research papers by science faculty), 1985 

5 41

Hole, David (correspondence), 1986 

5 42

Impact of Atomic Energy Industry on Community Health (report), 1955 

5 43

Japan Trip (trip report by John B. Storer), 1968 

5 44

Japan Trip (trip report by R.L. Hays), 1971 

5 45

Japan Trip (schedule, Marks meeting notes, ticket stubs, receipts, reports, press clipping), 1975 

5 46

Japanese press (English translations of atomic bomb related articles), 1960 

5 47

Japan Science Promotion Society (report), 1953 

5 48-49

Kyogikai for the Adult Health Study (meeting minuets), 1963 

5 50

Kyoto University (brochure), 1956 

5 51

Radiation Effects Research Foundation (report on cancer mortality in bomb survivors and newsletters), 1982 and 1985 

5 52

Royal Society of London Explosive Yields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (report), 1970 

5 53

Typical Japanese dwelling (specifications and design blueprints), 1956 

5 54

Marshall Islands (correspondence and press clippings), 1974 

5 55

National Academy of Sciences (budget and correspondence), 1970 and 1972 

5 56

Problems of Measurement of Aging in the Human Population (report), 1972 

5 57

Radioactive Dust from Nuclear Detonation (report), 1954 

6 58

U.S. Strategic Bomb Survey of Physical Damages (report), 1946 

6 59-62

U.S. Strategic Bomb Survey Heath and Medical Services and Japanese Wartime Standard of Living (reports), 1947 

6 63-64

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Series 2: Conference and Symposia Files, 1970s-1980s 

Box Folder

Human genetics course materials (University of Washington), 1976 

6 65

Conference on radiation associated thyroid carcinoma (program), 1976 

6 66

Department of Energy meeting and workshop on oil shale (press clipping, registration list, and introductory comments by Marks), 1977 

6 67

Symposium on the late biological effects of ionizing radiation (program, correspondence, report 1978 

6 68-69

Heath Physics Society annual meeting (newsletters, programs, abstracts, and notes), 1976 and 1978 

7 70

Department of Energy statistical symposium (program), 1980 

7 71

Radon Specialists meeting (notes, abstracts, and correspondence), 1980 

7 72

Hazards to the fetus course materials (University of Washington), 1980 

7 73

American College of Nuclear Medicine annual meeting (program, abstracts, and correspondence), 1980 

7 74

Department of Energy health and mortality studies review meeting (agenda), 1980 

7 75

Environ Metrics symposium (program and correspondence), 1981 and 1982 

7 76

Radiation hazards in mining meeting (contact lists and notes), 1981 

7 77

American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting (program, correspondence, and notes), 1981 and 1982 

7 78

International symposium on biomedical effects of ozone (program), 1982 

7 79

Department of Energy radiation epidemiology contractors' workshop (correspondence and presentation), 1982 

7 80

National Council on Radiation (correspondence, reports, annual meeting programs), 1979-1988 

7 81-82

National Council on Radiation (continued) 

8 83

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Series 3: The Hanford Mortality Study, 1970s-1980 

Box Folder

Argonne National Laboratory (mortality study), 1959 

8 84

Mancuso, Thomas F. (correspondence, reports, testimony, presentations, article manuscript copies), 1965, 1970-1984 

8 85-89

Project feasibility study, 1966 

8 90

Retrospective and data acquisition report, 1969 

9 91-92

Mancuso progress report (numbers 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10), 1970-1974 

9 93-98

Mancuso progress reports (numbers 11 and 13), 1975 and 1977 

10 99-100

Stewart, Alice (correspondence, reports, and article manuscript copies), 1970-1978 

10 101-102

Radiation protection standards, 1971 

10 103

Sanders, Barkev S. (article manuscript copies), 1971 and 1972 

10 104

Medical Research Council (Robin H. Mole correspondence), 1974-1982 

10 105

Blot, William J. (letter to Marks), 1975 

10 106

Gilbert, Ethel S. (article manuscript copies), 1975-1985 

10 107-108

National Radiological Protection Board (correspondence, bulletins, press release), 1976-1985 

11 109

Marks, Sidney (article manuscript copies, project status report, press briefings, narrative of his involvement with the project and the Mancuso controversy, and correspondence), 1976-1984 

11 110-111

British Nuclear Fuels (Geoff B. Schofield correspondence and obituary) 1976-1985 

11 112

Milham, Samuel (article manuscript copy and evaluation by Mancuso team), 1976 

11 113

John Abbotts and the Public Interest Research Group (letter from Battelle and requested documents), 1976 

11 114

Press clippings 1976-1979, 1981, 1985, and undated 

11 115-116

Project history, 1977, 1983, and undated 

11 117

Anderson, Terrence (correspondence and review of Mancuso), 1977 and 1979 

11 118

Tamplin, Arthur (testimony before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission), 1977 

11 119

Brodsky, Allen (article manuscripts copies, correspondence, and testimony before the House Sub-Committee on Health and the Environment), 1977-1979, 1982 

12 120

Mancuso report critiques, 1977 and 1978 

12 121

Essays on nuclear power in the Northwest by Evergreen State College students, 1978 

12 122

The Windscale Inquiry Volumes 1 and 2 (British nuclear industry environment and health report), 1978 

12 123-124

National Radiation Protection Board review of Mancuso, 1978 and 1979 

12 125

British Nuclear Fuels (Eddie Clough correspondence and reports), 1978, 1979, 1982-1984 

12 126

Atomic Energy Research Establishment (A. Norman Stott correspondence), 1978 

12 127

Leukemia and radiation (reports), 1978 and 1988 

12 128

Canadian Mortality Study (reports and correspondence), 1979, 1981, 1984 

12 129

Canadian Mortality Study (continued) 

13 130-131

Advisory Committee (correspondence and reports), 1980-1985 

13 132-133

Culham Laboratory (William M. Lomer correspondence), 1980 and 1986 

13 134

United Kingdom Energy Authority (correspondence and reports on the United Kingdom Atomic Energy mortality study) 1980-1986 

13 135

Federal Radiation Research Activities House Subcommittee hearing testimony (Robert Alvarez, William Harpin, George Hutchinson, and Seymour Jablon), 1982 

13 136

Radiation and life expectancy, 1957, 1982, 1983 

13 137

Presentations on radiation, 1983 

13 138

Peer review, 1983 

13 139

Energy-Related Health Research annual report, 1983 

14 140

Briefings and memoranda, 1984 

14 141

Radiostrontium report, 1984 

14 142

Three Mile Island (review of dose estimates), 1984 

14 143

Risk assessment briefing, 1985 

14 144

Alvarez, Robert (Alvarez report and comments by Marks), 1985 and 1986 

14 145

British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant (mortality study), 1982 

14 146

Petersen, Gerald (correspondence), 1986 

14 147

Epidemiology presentation, 1988 

14 148

Human health studies presentation, undated 

14 149

Animal radiation studies (Marks and others), undated 

14 150

Atomic Industrial Forum critique of Mancuso, undated 

14 152

Mortality study literature (index, abstracts, and articles resulting from or about the study), 1976-1982 

14 153-154

Mortality study literature (continued) 

15 155-156

Slides and index 1976, 1980, 1982-1984 

15 157

Miscellaneous, 1963 and undated 

15 158

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Series 4: Assurance Program for Remedial Action Project, 1980 

Box Folder

Utah State Department of Health (correspondence with Marks and others), 1979-1984 

15 159

Project files (distribution lists, memos, field task proposals and agreements, resumes, property reports, literature bibliography), 1981-1984 

15 160

Salt Lake City (radon screening results, seasonal radon levels, remedial action priorities, floor plans and maps), 1981, 1982, and undated 

15 161-164

Salt Lake City (projected excess cancer rates and health effects estimations for properties), 1983 and undated 

16 165-168

Uranium mines emission standards, 1982 and 1985 

16 169

Durango (health effects estimation for properties), 1983 

16 170

Radon in mill tailings presentation, 1983 

16 171

Description of procedures used in estimating health effects, 1983 

16 172

Estimation of daily food consumption (letter and report), 1983 and 1984 

16 173

Health effects of radon in mill tailings (correspondence and literature related to Marks's review article), 1984 

16 174

Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation presentation, 1984 

16 175

Risk assessment for remedial action, 1985 

17 176

Indoor air quality research strategy, 1985 

17 177

United Nations risk assessment of radiation, 1986 

17 178

Statistical methods for assessing environmental carcinogens risk, undated 

17 179

Uranium industry statistics and papers (microfiche), 1976, 1977, 1983 

17 180

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Series 5: Subject Files, 1960-1980s 

Box Folder

Andreas, George (correspondence), 1982 

17 181

Brazilian regions of high natural radioactivity (article manuscript copies), 1963 

17 182

Bertell, Rosalie (article manuscript copy), 1976-1978, and 1985 

17 183

Bertell and Bross (correspondence), 1972-1976 

17 184

Biomedical and environmental research chronology, 1973 

17 185

Bross, Irwin D.J. (article manuscript copy), 1976 

17 186

Canada (health studies of uranium miners and atomic workers), 1983-1985, and 1987 

17 187-188

Colorado Energy Research Institute (letter), 1983 

17 189

Energy production (comparative risks analysis), undated 

18 190

Hanford (press clippings and photographs), 1979 and 1985 

18 191

Fallout (map and literature), 1955 and 1968 

18 192

General Electric (corporate research and development), 1981 

18 193

Glossary of radiation terms, undated 

18 194

India (natural high levels of radiation), 1956-1973 and undated 

18 195

Indoor air quality (literature), 1987 

18 196

Ionizing radiation (literature), 1956, 1961, and undated 

18 197

Kathren, Ronald (radiation and health physics presentation), 1986 and undated 

18 198

Lilienfeld paper (Marks's notes), undated 

18 199

Los Alamos (AEC study of plutonium workers), 1973 

18 200

Low level radiation (literature), 1979, 1980, and undated 

18 201

Lung dosimetry (literature), 1964-1985 and undated 

19 202

Lyon, J. Lyn (Marks review of leukemia study), 1978 and 1979 

19 203

Meyer, Mary (critique of paper), 1970 

19 204

National Council on Radiation Protection (comments on Federal Register), 1980 

19 205

Natural radiation and health, (literature) 1979 

19 206

New Mexico uranium miners (literature), 1978 and undated 

19 207

Nonmalignant respiratory diseases in miners (literature), undated 

19 208

Niue Island (map, geological survey, and correspondence) 1959 

19 209

Oak Ridge Associated Universities (newsletter), 1983 

19 210

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (correspondence and reports), 1982-1986 

19 211

Pre-natal radiation (literature), 1973 and 1974 

19 212

Press clippings (radiation and human health), 1981-1986 

19 213

Radiation health risks (literature), 1982, 1983, and 1984 

19 214

Radon (conference papers, literature, Germany, human health risk, inside dwellings, and miscellaneous), 1973-1988 and undated 

19 215

Radon (continued) 

20 216-224

Risk analysis and energy sources (speech, literature, and presentation outline), 1979, 1984, 1985, and undated 

20 225

Risks associated with nuclear power (National Academy of Science report), 1979 

20 226

Shale oil (presentation outline), undated 

20 227

Sharpe, William (article manuscript copies), undated 

20 228

South Africa (lung cancer in miners), 1971 and 1980 

20 229

Testicular function and radiation (literature), 1974 

20 230

Unidentified photograph [Marks and others?], undated 

20 231

United Nation Scientific Committee on Effects of Radiation (reports), 1977-1981 

20 232

Uranium miners and radiation (literature) 1969, 1978, 1984 

20 233-234

Uranium miner regression study, 1976 

20 253

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